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Full text of "Good housekeeping's book on the business of housekeeping : a manual of method"

LIBRARY 
Connecticut Agricultural 



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m e 1936 

\a i T1 '54 



GOOD HOUSEKEEPING'S 

Book on 

THE BUSINESS OF 
HOUSEKEEPING 

A Manual of Method 



By 

Mildred Maddocks Bentley 

Home Economics: Consultant and Writer 



New Ways of Handling the 
Familiar Routine of Housework 



Published by Good Housekeeping 
119 West Fortieth Street, New York 



Copyright, 1924, by 

Good Housekeeping Magazine 

International Magazine Company, Ino. 



All rights reserved, including that of translation 

into foreign languages, including 

the Scandinavian 



i9 m 



FIRST PRINTING 

October, 192\ 

SECOND PRINTING 

March, 1925 



Printed in the United States of America by 

J. J. LITTLE AND IVES COMPANY, NEW YORK 



Foreword 



THE good housekeeper must bring to her task of 
housekeeping every one of the qualities that make 
for a successful executive in the downtown business 
world. She must be able to handle people — I know of no 
employees more difficult than the green maid of all work, 
the temperamental couple, or the casual by-the-day worker. 
She must be able to buy wisely — and her purchases total 
an aggregate in most families of from 50 to 75% of the 
total income enjoyed. 

Finally, she must know the actual processes involved in her 
business of housekeeping much as her husband knows fac- 
tory methods lying back of the product he must market. 
Heretofore this housekeeping lore was handed down from 
mother to daughter, but today such an equipment for 
her new business is not enough for the young housewife. 
Methods and appliances have improved so tremendously 
that the new housekeeping bears little relation to the old 
task. Both mechanical and chemical assistants are replac- 
ing much of the old hard hand drudgery. 
For some sixteen years Good Housekeeping Institute has 
been testing out new appliances and new housekeeping 
methods. This volume represents the results of some of 
this research work. It has had the further proof of actual 
operation in the home of the writer — an average home with 
all of the every day problems that the average American 
home must meet. I feel confident that in offering you this 
manual of method Good Housekeeping is filling a long felt 
want on the library shelf of progressive housekeepers. 

Mildred Maddocks Bentley 



Contents 



RAM 

Foreword 5 

SECTION I.— THE NEW HOUSEKEEPING 

CHAPTER 

I. Labor-Saving Equipment 11 

II. A Call to Budgeting 17 

SECTION II.— SERVANTS AND HOUSE- 
KEEPERS 

I. The Single Maid Regime 29 

II. The Routine of Two Servants .... 34 

SECTION III.— ROUTINE HOUSEHOLD TASKS 

I. The Daily Routine of Downstairs Care . 43 

II. The Daily Routine of Upstairs Care . . 50 

III. Dishwashing Three Times a Day ... 60 

IV. The Care of the Refrigerator .... 67 

SECTION IV.— SPECIAL HOUSEHOLD TASKS 

I. Silver Cleaning 73 

II. Metal Cleaning 78 

vii 



viii CONTENTS 

CHAPTER PAGE 

III. Floor Treatment and Care 84 

IV. Furniture Cleaning and Polishing . . 95 
V. Closet and Storeroom Care 100 

VI. Cellar Care and Cleanliness . 106 

VII. Spring Renovating 110 

VIII. Seasonal House Cleaning 116 

IX. Safe Procedure in Closing a House . . 120 

SECTION V.— IN THE LAUNDRY 

I. Plan and Location 129 

II. Equipment, Choice and Installation . . 134 

III. Washing Formulas 147 

Soaps and Soap Compounds 
Softeners 
Blues and Tints 
Lingerie Tints and Dyes 
Starches and Starching 

IV. Laundry Methods 160 

The Chemistry of Washing 
The Routine of the Family Wash 
The. Removal of Stains 
Sprinkling and Folding 
Washing Silks and Woolens 
Fitting the Baby's Wash into 
the House Routine 



SECTION I 



The New 
Housekeeping 



Chapter I — Labor-Saving Equipment 
Chapter II — A Call to Budgeting 



CHAPTER 1 



Labor -Saving 
Equipment 

THE new housekeeping is vastly different from the old 
regime. Largely because well made, efficient ma- 
chines replace much of the hand labor of our grandmother's 
time, the modern beginner in household lore must learn 
a new system of planning and new methods of work. 

Many are at a loss to decide just what machines are the 
indispensable ones for their housework and put off acquir- 
ing any because of this uncertainty. Frankly there is 
ample opportunity for saving both time and labor as well 
as money in servant hire by the purchase of well constructed 
and well designed equipment. And it is a fallacy to think 
that servants cannot learn to use them. 

For instance, for the kitchen there are today well planned 
kitchen cabinet systems either in wood or metal to take 
the place of the large pantries and to accomplish their 
work better. This same new housekeeper has her choice 
of gas or electric ranges with heat regulated ovens, electric 

11 



BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



fireless cookers and fireless cookers to be used in conjunc- 
tion with the gas range; pressure cookers and ranges 
burning oil so efficiently that this quick fuel has revolution- 
ized the country kitchen. There is something for every 
one of you. 

Water heating systems enable her to have an ample supply 
of hot water at temperatures high enough for the best 
work, and she can select her fuel — gas, oil, or electricity 
in the few sections its cost would not make it prohibitive. 

Electric refrigeration is more than a dream. It is a real 
fact of accomplishment. In the larger sizes (250 pounds 
ice capacity) refrigerators are less costly to operate than 
with ice service even at high rates for electricity and in 
both large and small sizes they furnish lower refrigeration 
and better food conservation with some additional saving 
in time and labor hitherto involved in cleaning the refrig- 
erator. When the first cost can be assumed they prove 
indispensable in the well ordered home. 

The single piece double drainboard sink, set high — from 34 
to 36 inches from the floor to bottom of sink — has worked 
wonders as a real labor saver. A dishwasher installed to 
waste and supply as a pantry sink saves both drudgery 
and hands. 

In a single maid household it enables daughter or mother 
to care for all serving dishes; leaving the cooking dishes 
to be washed at the kitchen sink by the maid. 

12 



LABOR SAVING EQUIPMENT 



Even the linoleum, cemented to the kitchen floor, proves 
an appreciable labor saver in that it eliminates floor scrub- 
bing and reduces the care to a semi-weekly or weekly 
cleaning and polishing with liquid wax, and a very occa- 
sional mopping followed by the polishing. 

Laundry equipment has revolutionized home laundering 
methods. The indispensables are a washing machine, an 
ironing machine and a dryer for use on stormy days. The 
latter however should not take the place of all the "sun 
and air" drying the weatherman allows to the house- 
keeper. Ceiling dryer racks are convenient as are also 
low benches on casters for easy rolling. A well designed 
wall-hung ironing board for hand work with electric 
irons of different weights should be provided. Not until 
one really stops to think, is it possible to realize what 
these mean as work-savers in comparison with the hand 
washing methods, the hand wringer and the old-fashioned 
sad irons. 

The vacuum cleaner and the electric sewing machine stand 
out as indispensable equipment for their several tasks. 
Tribute must also be paid to the chemically prepared and 
the wax and oil treated mops, dusters and polishing cloths. 
These save more work than one credits at first thought, 
because they have revolutionized floor, wood trim and 
furniture care. 

Space does not permit mention of all the excellent special 
devices for a kitchen, laundry, etc. Sufficient to say there 

13 



BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



are few household tasks that are not helped by some ma- 
chine worthy to purchase, provided the task that they care 
for is sufficiently routine to warrant the original outlay. 

Just a word as to what shall govern your selection. 
Choose all household equipment from the tested and ap- 
proved lists of Good Housekeeping Institute. Look for 
the seal of approval. Any device so listed is a safe pur* 
chase and you can be saved untold annoyance and dissatis- 
faction by selecting a machine that prolonged test has 
proved to be well made and efficient. In practically no 
instance is there any single "best." Like automobiles of 
similar price class there are varieties of appeal that, quite 
aside from quality, affect the purchaser's decision. More 
important, I believe, than any consideration other than 
quality is a choice that secures dealer interest and knowl- 
edge of the device, with ability to replace minor parts 
promptly. Give the preference, then, to a device handled 
in your locality. 

In conclusion just a word as to financing the purchase of 
household equipment. While there is a saving in an out- 
right purchase, there are nevertheless many women with 
housekeeping allowances liberal enough to provide for 
regular monthly payments if these could be saved out of 
the wages of day workers or other servant hire. But "in- 
stallment plan" buying has a bad name among these 
housekeepers and they do not take advantage of the method 
because they fail to distinguish between investing in ma- 

14 



LABOR SAYING EQUIPMENT 



chines that work out their own payment and assuming the 
long time purchase of a luxury whose entire cost it would 
be impossible to meet. At present riluch household equip- 
ment involving power can be purchased through the local 
power company to be paid for by a series of monthly pay- 
ments added to the gas or electric bill. It is a method 
that commends itself to the thoughtful housekeeper who 
otherwise might have to defer her investment. 

SCIENTIFIC HOUSEKEEPING 

I have recently read several books on the subject of scien- 
tific management in connection with my industrial work, 
and I began to apply the principles to my household tasks. 
I started with dishwashing, studying my present prac- 
tise, utensils, motions, sequences of motions, etc., with 
the purpose of forming a standard practise. I expected 
to be surprised, but the results amazed me, not only that 
so much time was saved, but that I found how much I 
was enjoying the work. — Good Housekeeping Discovery. 

CONSERVING ONE'S STRENGTH 

This suggestion from a physician may be of value in con- 
serving the strength of other housewives. " Never lift any- 
thing with the back bent; learn to crouch down and lift 
with a straight spine, making the weight come on the 
arms. Many a tired or sprained back could be avoided 
in this way." — Good Housekeeping Discovery. 

15 



BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



FOR SUNDAY MORNING 

We are all doubtless familiar with households where every 
member seems to feel grumpy on Sunday morning 1 — grown- 
ups because they wanted to sleep and couldn't because the 
children made so much noise, and the children cross be- 
cause they were hungry and breakfast was a little late. I 
know a home w T here this problem has been met to every 
one 's satisfaction for years. Saturday night mother places 
by the side of the children's beds a small piece of bread 
and butter, or plain coffee cake, and a bit of fruit, only a 
small piece. The piece is wrapped carefully in waxed 
paper and is not enough to interfere with appetites for 
breakfast. And it is such fun to wake up and see "what 
mother brought up this morning." That extra half -hour 
nap is a luxury for the rest of the family, the kiddies are 
happy, and the day starts right. 

— Good Housekeeping Discovery. 

SAFETY FIRST 

For the sake of a healthier town in which to live, faith- 
fully promise yourself that you will make a hole in every 
tin can that you dispose of. It takes only a moment, 
and yet it effectually prevents stagnant water collecting 
— the sure breeding place for mosquitoes. Never mind 
what other people do, your conscience will be clear, and 
perhaps you can induce others to follow your example. 

— Good Housekeeping Discovery. 
16 



CHAPTER II 



A Call to Budgeting 

DO you run your home like a business? Do you plan 
your work so that a part of your twenty-four hour 
day belongs to you as an individual f 

The stereotyped call to budgeting and account-keeping, 
with directions that accompany it, appeals generally to the 
one type of housekeeper — the mathematically-minded, who 
already handles figures with the alertness of familiarity 
and love. Perhaps because I am one of them, I believe 
there are hosts of other housekeepers who are terrified by 
digits as digits, but who can overcome this terror when their 
value, as a means toward system and thrift in housekeeping, 
is once clearly demonstrated. 

Proportions are and must be flexible because of the 
flexible value of the dollar. But keep account of your 
spending under the proper headings. Plot the proportion 
from the charges that are fixed obligations which you must 
meet. It may be rent, it may be buying a home: that is 
your starting point. It may even be an unusual cost of 
sickness. But in budgeting it is always essential, in plan- 
ning, to start from fixed obligations, molding the balance 

17 



BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



of money-spending around them. At the end of the 
year you will have more valuable information than you 
can acquire by any study of some one else's experience. 

The smaller the income to be plotted, the more necessary 
it is that one hand shall hold the purse strings. And it is 
essential to pick the best financier in the family for that 
task, be it husband or wife. The other members of the 
family should not feel degraded by asking for any sum 
that can be expended with fairness to the income's obligor 
tions. It is all in the cause of dollar efficiency. 

When the income is large enough for greater ease in 
living, it may well be divided for convenience in handling 
individual needs. The important thing is not who handles 
the money, but how the money is handled. When a pro- 
portion that entails a sacrifice to the balance of the family 
is spent upon one member's wants and wishes, then is the 
time for a business-like talk that will more fairly adjust 
the income. The point I wish to make is that allowances 
are not essential to fairness. They sometimes work a hard- 
ship to the small income. 

The envelope system for paying bills is undoubtedly the 
simplest for the smaller salaries that are to be spent 
as cash. Into the several envelopes — or small boxes, if you 
will — place the weekly sums to be devoted to the several 
budget items. Into the rent envelope is tucked the week's 
proportion of the rent, and so with all the rest. 

18 



A CALL TO BUDGETING 



Itemize your expenses down to the last detail if you 
enjoy bookkeeping, but it is not actually necessary for 
efficient budgeting. It is often valuable to know the rela- 
tive expenditures for groceries, meat, milk, and fruit, 
because these proportions often tell a story of good or 
poor nourishment. It is well, then, to keep these with 
comparative accuracy. But to be a slave to the jotting 
down of the purchase of every yeast cake often discourages 
a housekeeper from enjoying the benefits of budgeting her 
income, and is not really essential. 

A monthly payment system commonly called the credit 
system has obvious advantages. Where it is possible to 
deposit this house money as a checking account, to my mind 
it can be spent more wisely. But there are two "buts" 
It is only fair to the bank to give them the use of the 
money for at least fifteen days — a whole month is, of course, 
still better. By depositing your money on the fifteenth, 
they have this money for their own use until the third 
or fourth of the month, and the handling of your checks 
will show a slight profit and not a loss to them. If you 
deposit your money on the first of the month and check it 
out on the fourth, you can see the cost it will entail upon 
the bank. Many small banks will appreciably cut the sum 
required for deposit, if you in turn will deposit on the fif- 
teenth money to be used after the first of the month. The 
second "but" is psychological. Train yourself to pay out 
the money mentally as you make a credit purchase. If 

19 



BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 

you do this, the first of the month will bring you no sur- 
prises. You will not overdraw your account. With these 
two safe-guards the credit system, for even the small in- 
come, is most efficient. But you must protect your bank, 
and you must protect your bank-account. 

Many families have found the following figures helpful. 
The figures are based on a family of five, and have been 
formulated and used by the Home Service Departments 
of many banks. 

Monthly Income $150.00 $200.00 $300.00 $400.00 

Savings 11.00 25.00 40.00 65.00 

Food 50.00 50.00 60.00 75.00 

Shelter 38.00 50.00 75.00 100.00 

Clothing 26.00 32.00 50.00 50.00 

Operating Expense 13.00 18.00 30.00 50.00 

Advancement 12.00 25.00 40.00 60.00 

Monthly Income $500.00 $600.00 $700.00 $800.00 

Savings 100.00 125.00 175.00 200.00 

Food 75.00 85.00 100.00 100.00 

Shelter 125.00 150.00 150.00 150.00 

Clothing 60.00 70.00 80.00 100.00 

Operating Expense 60.00 80.00 95.00 100.00 

Advancement 80.00 90.00 100.00 150.00 

Lack of clear and definite standards for using the income 
causes much financial worry. It is not possible for the 
majority of people to mass great wealth and build up large 
estates, but when, one has made a workable plan so that out 
of each instalment of the income he is (1) making provi- 
sions for the future, (2) building up a reserve which he can 
use for seasonal and large expenses, and (3) taking care 
of current expenses, he can at least have the satisfaction of 

20 



A CALL TO BUDGETING 



knowing that he is laying* the proper foundation and steer- 
ing toward financial safety. 

So while budgeting points out to you the way your dol- 
lars are traveling, an actual control of that dollar travel 
can be obtained only by careful and intelligent planning. 
But not until householders try it do they realize how much 
control they have over the situation. In one family gas 
for water heating costs $20 per month. Another family 
of similar size and hot water equipment has a monthly 
bill of only $5. In the latter case leaky faucets are 
promptly packed, but what is even more important, each 
member of the household uses the hot water supply with 
moderation and no waste. 

You can appreciably affect your lighting bills by sup- 
plying varied sizes of bulbs. I am taking it for granted 
that you turn out the lights when they are not needed, and 
that you renew the tungstens before they are discolored 
and obscure light. It is glaring illumination, not lighting 
for comfort or efficiency, that makes your current bills 
too high. Therefore, where you want a general illumina- 
tion only, as in halls, closets, etc., and direct lighting over- 
head fixtures, use ten-watt lamps. This, of course, does 
not apply to any of the indirect lighting overhead fixtures. 
It would take five of these small lamps each burning an 
hour to equal the cost of your commonly used 50-watt size. 
For all reading lamps, wherever you need efficient lighting 

21 



BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



for work or for play, of course use the fifty or seventy-five 
watt lamps. Comfort is increased, and bills are decreased. 

Heating leaks need a word. Save yourself coal next 
winter by jacketing your furnace or boiler and its con- 
ducting pipes with asbestos cement. The saving right there 
can run into tons of coal in a large house. It will mean a 
ton or more even for a small house. Install a heat regula- 
tor ; you will save another ton there, for it almost takes the 
place of a skilled engineer, since the coal burns evenly to 
a fine ash. Clean and keep clean the furnace, pipes, and 
flues. If you have done all this, you are wasting no more 
fuel than you can prevent. 

The leaks in buying food are many. For the small fam- 
ily, I have definitely proved that ' ' shopping around ' ' with 
cash may be wasteful. I am aware that this is heresy to 
many, but here are my reasons. The total amount of food 
consumed by a small number of people, two or four, carries 
with it a profit that is interesting enough when but one 
grocer and one butcher, etc., receive it, but scatter those 
profits, and not a tradesman is really interested in your 
preference. You are thrown back on your own skill in 
selecting the best, and one mistake means loss to you, be- 
cause you cannot return the cash purchase. But even one 
mistake carries loss to the credit store, so that the store 
where you carry an account maintains the standards of 
quality you demand, with but few slips. 

22 



A CALL TO BUDGETING 



Try my system when moving into a new town or neigh- 
borhood. At first shop around, paying cash, until you find 
the butcher, the grocer, and the vegetable man whose 
quality of goods suits you. Then go to the proprietor, tell 
him what your approximate monthly bill is to be, and 
state that you would be glad to promise your exclusive pat- 
ronage and prompt monthly payment so long as quality 
and service are fair and satisfactory. I have used this 
same policy in managing an apartment for myself and 
maid, a home for a larger family, and a hospital family 
of two hundred and fifty. It has never failed to produce 
the best of treatment with real, thrift prices. 

Just a word here about telephone ordering. It need not 
be an extravagant or wasteful method. If I had not con- 
sistently used it, I should never have been able to accom- 
plish other as important tasks. In one year I visited my 
grocer twice. At those times he did not recognize me, but 
he did recognize the quality that must be delivered to that 
address. I am aware that this is, again, heresy. And the 
secret of success probably does lie in a knowledge of food 
values, foods in season, and food market costs. But it is 
a knowledge that all may acquire. Refuse to be satisfied 
with other than the standard you yourself have set. Send 
back the first wilted head of lettuce, and there will be no 
second. Spend fifteen minutes each week to check over the 
grocer's statement. How can he cheat you? 

23 



BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



Where the family is larger than the one indicated, 
staple supplies must of course be bought in quantity, for 
storage space then pays for itself. And in this case shop- 
ping around for both seasons and price is essential and to 
your advantage. But in purchasing in these large quanti- 
ties do not make the mistake of using, or allowing them to 
be used, from the large containers. Treat the store-room as 
your grocery store, and keep the kitchen cabinet stocked 
with current supplies. Even the most intelligent of us is 
affected, by an abundance, to use a bit more generously 
than necessary, thus jeopardizing the advantage of the 
close buying. 

Take your butcher into your confidence as you have your 
grocer. Let him have all your trade and know that he is 
going to get it just as long as he respects it. Let your 
saving come in the selection of cuts and a wise use of 
leftovers. The housekeeper who shops around for meats 
gets cheated nine times out of ten in quality or flavor or 
quantity. 

TAKING ADVANTAGE OP SALES 

This is my money savings plan. In the memorandum of 
my family account-book I have listed the various special 
sales of different department stores with the dates on which 
they fall. There are the shoe, furniture, drug, stationery, 
silk, underwear, and many other sales which are always 

24 



A CALL TO BUDGETING 



offered during the same month in each year. On the fol- 
lowing 1 pages I make notes, as they occur to me, of articles 
which I shall need. For instance, I find that my visiting 
cards are nearly gone. I jot this down and, turning to 
my notes, I find at about what date I can have cards en- 
graved from my plate at a saving of fifty cents per hun- 
dred. Or I wish to lay in a supply of sheets and pillow- 
cases and take note of the month when white sales are at 
their best. I have practised this plan in a town of ten thou- 
sand people and in a city of nearly half a million, and I 
know that it works well in both places. Aside from the 
dollars saved by this ever-ready information, there is a 
great satisfaction in being able to plan my expenses in a 

more efficient way. 

— Good Housekeeping Discove/~y. 

A BUDGET HELP 

In making small purchases I always plan to pay for them 
in bills, and in this way I am able to keep on hand about 
five dollars in change. This change is kept in the proper 
divisions of a small cash box, and when the delivery boys 
arrive, I am sure they bless me for being able to hand 
over to them the proper change without any trouble. I 
am sure, too, that it is a great comfort to me to have 
the change I need without having to borrow from a guest 
or a maid or even a neighbor. 

— Good Housekeeping Discovery. 
25 



BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



MY GOOD HOUSEKEEPING SAVINGS BANK 

Last year, I kept a small bank which I called my Good 
Housekeeping bank, and into it I put all money saved by 
following any economical suggestion given on the Discovery 
page. To illustrate : I made window screens by Discovery 
directions instead of buying them, and put in the bank the 
difference in cost of making the screens and buying them. 
Several such instances came up, and by the end of the year 
I had saved enough money to give Good Housekeeping sub- 
scriptions to several of my friends. 

— Good Housekeeping Discovery. 



26 



section n 



Servants and 
Housekeepers 



Chapter I — The Single Maid Regime 
Chapter II — The Routine of Two Servants 



CHAPTER I 



The Single Maid Regime 

A MOST important factor in the smooth running of a 
home that is every good homemaker's aim is system. 
Whether the work is to be accomplished by paid labor or 
labor paid by love alone, a schedule is a help. On the other 
hand it is not possible to lay down any hard and fast 
rules because duties must vary in their relative im- 
portance with the individual requirements of each family. 
At the same time I believe many of us have not realized 
the increasing complexity of the "general housework'' 
duties that we have been demanding from a single worker. 
It has been very gradually that living conditions of the 
average American family have been raised in so far as the 
refinements of living are concerned. But there is no ques- 
tion that these present high standards must be considered 
with relation to household service and that there must be 
some modification in our demands upon a single worker. 
Many housekeepers, especially those that have just as- 
sumed the duties, are uncertain just what it is fair to 
expect from the household workers they hire. 

29 



BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



With two only in a family I believe it is fair to look for 
a single maid who will cook simple meals, keep the house 
merely tidy, and undertake the laundry work. Or this 
same general maid will cook simple meals and keep the 
house really clean, with laundry work simplified by wash- 
ing and ironing machines. At the same time, even in so 
small a family, the frills of service must be eliminated. 
For one thing waiting on table can be simplified. I know 
this is heresy to many housekeepers who wish things ' ' done 
nicely," but a trial will prove the plan has the practical 
advantage of accomplishing more real housework. 

Under this scheme each course is served on the table by the 
host or hostess and the maid is required only at the change 
of courses and for the replenishment of food, water, etc. 
The answering of bells and doors and telephone messages 
should be otherwise provided for, save when no member 
of the family is at home to respond. This plan leaves the 
maid free for her long stretches of work such as cleaning 
or washing and ironing. 

In a family of three, the schedule was worked out with 
more than fair success by the single worker accomplishing 
the cooking and the care of the entire downstairs floor. 
She also finishes all laundry that is not completed by a 
single day's work per week of the laundress. The entire 
upstairs work is assumed by the family with what day 
worker help they may need for tlie rough cleaning. But 

30 



THE SINGLE MAID REGIME 



here, too, telephone, door and table waiting has been placed 
on a simplified basis. 

In larger families than these a single worker becomes cook 
only, and possibly laundress. But all other duties must 
be assumed by the various members of the family or by 
outside help. The schedules vary, you see, with practically 
the same work to be accomplished. I give them all to show 
you the difficulty of standardizing work. It is your family 
and your requirements and the special ability of the maid 
herself that must settle the kinds of work she will under- 
take. But remember do not attempt to make the term 
general houseworker elastic enough to cover all of our 
modern living requirements. 

The actual weekly schedule can well be applied to a house- 
keeper herself or to the single maid. It is affected vitally 
by the consideration of equipment. In the household pro- 
vided with a washing machine and ironing machine the 
schedule might be: 

Monday: laundry work. 

Tuesday: mending. 

Wednesday: cleaning of silver, pantry and icebox with a legiti- 
mate afternoon out, whether it be housekeeper or maid. 

Thursday : alternate a cleaning of living-room, hall and stairs 
with the cleaning of dining-room, hall and stairs. 

Friday : clean bedrooms and bath. 

Saturday: kitchen and closet and icebox. 

This same schedule without the laundry equipment must 
devote two days to the special work of the laundry rather 

31 



BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



than one and dovetail the mending with other work in 
consequence. In some houses laundry work is accom- 
plished by outside service and for such a one we suggest 
the following: 

Monday: guest room, one other bedroom and bath; or alternate 

the remaining bedrooms and bath. 
Tuesday: (alternate) do the living-room and dining-room. 
Wednesday: clean silver, pantry and icebox. 
Thursday: clean the maid's room and do the fine hand ironing 

with an afternoon out. 
Friday: Clean the kitchen, closets, and rear halls. 
Saturday : kitchen and closet and icebox. 

WHEN ATTACHING A WINDOW SHADE 

Instead of using hammer and tacks to attach a window 
shade to its roller, try the more satisfactory method of 
using inch-wide adhesive tape. 

— Good Housekeeping Discovery. 

A TABLE PAD 

After I had had two extra leaves made for my dining- 
room table, I found that I could not match the leaves 
with table pads, so I took two strips of corrugated paper 
cut to fit the leaves, put them together having the cor- 
rugated sides inside, and tacked them together lightly in 
several places with heavy thread to keep them from slip- 
ping. This made a leaf the exact thickness of my other 
pads. I then made a slip-cover for them of flannelette, 
and found I had a satisfactory pad at slight cost. 

— Good Housekeeping Discovery. 
32 



THE SINGLE MAID REGIME 



AT BREAKFAST TIME 

As there are six people in our household who come down 
to breakfast at different times in the morning, I found 
that instead of keeping the coffee hot over a low flame 
or reheating it each time, it is far better to pour the 
coffee from the percolator into a thermos bottle, which 
can be placed upon the table and used as it is needed. 
This method keeps the coffee hot, and the flavor is re- 
tained. — Good Housekeeping Discovery. 

TIMING LONG DISTANCE TELEPHONE CALLS 

We have occasion to use the telephone for many long- 
distance calls and have found the following method enables 
us to tell whether we have exceeded the allowed three min- 
utes. A threes-minute egg-timer is secured to the wall 
near the phone. "When connection is made the egg-timer 
is turned and can be watched without taking your mind 
off the call. The timer is of the hour-glass type and the 
amount saved soon pays for its small cost. 

— Good Housekeeping Discovery. 

FOR HANGING BROOMS 

I have found that small picture wire is far superior to 
any kind of twine for hanging brooms and brushes by, 
and the wire lasts indefinitely. 

— Good Housekeeping Discovery. 
33 



CHAPTER II 



The Routine with 
Two Servants 

THE management of a home serviced by two workers is 
a bit more complicated. The housekeeper becomes a 
real employer of labor and has the added psychological 
problems to meet with which the man in business has to 
cope. The more executive ability, tact, and actual knowl- 
edge of the work itself, that she has at her command the 
more smoothly will the wheels of the machinery run. Many 
housekeepers do not realize that the acquisition of this 
additional pair of hands entails more real strain in house 
management. We exchange a work muscular in character 
and free from nerve strain for the mental effort of man- 
aging another's brain and hands. Many a housekeeper 
whose family is too large for the single worker looks back 
with longing to that period of less complicated living. 

Perhaps the first step toward real management lies in their 
housing problem. But living conditions for service workers 
are almost universally good in these days. Separate beds, 
a bath, abundance of linen and warm bed clothing we 

34 



THE ROUTINE WITH TWO SERVANTS 



all provide, but have we thought, in furnishing their rooms, 
to select furniture and rugs that will take a minimum of 
time and effort to keep them clean and spotless? This 
time and effort saved will redound to the credit side of 
your ledger. Simple beds, wicker furniture, cretonne 
cushions and curtains are all easy to clean and make for 
comfort and inexpensive beauty as well. 

Again, efficiency is an overworked word but the house- 
keeper who knows her job inspires confidence in her workers 
that proves a magnet in itself. We have all noted with 
surprise the comparative ease with which the "driving" 
type of housekeeper has held her workers. Here is a 
partial explanation. That housekeeper may "drive" but 
because she knows what a given piece of work means in 
hours and effort she never expects the impossible. She 
can never be unfair and it is unfairness that labor can 
rightly resent. So if you will take the trouble to install 
a system that will extend from the budgeting of dollars 
to the budgeting of hours you will be more than repaid. 
I know of no printed lore that will completely suit your 
conditions. It is your washing which must be budgeted. 
It is your floors, rugs, meals and housecleaning that alone 
affect the issue and you must learn their requirements. 

Even the working schedules that I am including are sug- 
gestive only. I doubt if they can be applied in a single 
case in their entirety. They should, however, have a sug- 
gestive value, inspiring you to try out your own plan. 

35 



BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



I hardly need to mention in these modern days the wisdom 
of providing proper tools for work as fast as there is any 
indication that they will be used. You cannot measure 
the value to you in connection with this service question 
of an attractive, well planned, convenient kitchen; of as 
attractive and well planned a laundry. 

Engagement of Servants 

In engaging servants take with you a typewritten 
schedule of the work required. Have it clearly under- 
stood that emergencies only would make it necessary to 
modify or change the schedule. After the servant is hired 
you can further help by giving all orders clearly and adher- 
ing to them after they are given, with the same emergency 
necessity provided for. 

The question of time off should be fully settled in the 
preliminary interview. I cannot give you much help be- 
cause local conditions make the amount and the time it 
is taken a variable factor, but I never had a worker who 
was not willing to effect some compromise between the 
conditions that my home demanded and her own wishes 
dictated. The point is not what hours and time you give 
but that those hours and time be definitely arranged for 
and once given be considered her very own. 

Only the most serious emergencies should ever be permitted 
to interfere with the servant's outing. One who has never 
been in service cannot imagine the eagerness with which 

36 



THE ROUTINE WITH TWO SERVANTS 

these breaks in their monotonous existence are looked for- 
ward to. 

Order all supplies immediately after breakfast, using the 
list furnished by the cook or making up your own list. 
If dinner is in the middle of the aay, Tuesday's supplies 
should be ordered on Monday. With the dinner pushed 
forward, store deliveries are so arranged that it is feasible 
to order on Monday morning for Monday's dinner needs. 
Written menus are a help, both in conserving supplies and 
in saving time of preparation. 

The Two Maid R£gimb 

A common grouping of work under the two maid system 
calls for a oook-laundress and chambermaid-waitress. It 
is advisable to select both at the same time and preferably 
friends, not relatives, since friction is often more common 
in the latter case and far more difficult to deal with. If 
possible arrange for an interchange of work on the "days 
out." Make them see in a businesslike way that you are 
paying for service and it is obviously unfair to throw back 
upon you the burden of their work three afternoons out of 
the seven. It is often wise to be more liberal with the 
amount of time off, when they will agree to thus exchange 
their work. Another common arrangement is the couple: 
the man as houseman or butler; the woman as cook- 
laundress. In their selection personal references are even 
more essential than with any other type. Every house- 

37 



BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



keeper owes it to herself and her neighbor to require refer- 
ences from employees, and give them only when really 
earned. For much of the trouble from irresponsible ser- 
vice can be laid at the door of the housekeeper herself, in 
that she has allowed the standard of reference to be lowered 
— Let us regain that standard. 

The following schedule of a week may have a suggestive 
value : 



Cook-Laundress 

Monday: demand a simple 
breakfast, omitting hot threads. 
Only such routine work as is 
necessary; and the washing. 
With the washing machine and 
an ironing machine it is not too 
much to expect the major part 
of the laundry work to be ac- 
complished in one day. Meals 
for this day should be planned of 
the slow cooking variety requir- 
ing little time and effort on the 
part of the cook. 

Tuesday: routine work and 
hand ironing. 

Wednesday : routine work, 
clean icebox, kitchen floor and 
take the waitress's place in the 
afternoon. 

Thursday : routine work, clean 
laundry, afternoon out. 



Friday: routine work, clean 
kitchen closets and cutlery. 



Chamb ermaid- Waitress 
Monday: routine work. Clean 
two bedrooms and bath. Alter- 
nate Mondays clean other bed- 
rooms. 



Tuesday: routine woTk and 
clean silver, pantry. 

Wednesday : routine work, per- 
sonal washing. Afternoon out. 



Thursday: clean living-room, 
or dining-room on alternate 
Thursdays. Serve the dinner. 
Some simple cooking may be in- 
volved. 

Friday : alternate cleaning 
guest rooms or the servants' 
rooms and all bedroom closets. 



38 



THE ROUTINE WITH TWO SERVANTS 

Cook-Laundress Chambermaid- Waitress 

Saturday: routine work, clean Saturday: routine work, halls 

icebox and halls, and kitchen and stairs, 
floors. 

Sunday: only most necessary Sunday: only most necessary 

work and alternate Sunday out, work and alternate Sunday out, 

either immediately after an early either immediately after an early 

dinner or for the balance of day dinner or for the balance of day 

according to agreement. according to agreement. 



AN EXCELLENT WAY TO UTILIZE SCRAPS OP 

TOILET SOAP 

Save all odds and ends of toilet soap of every description. 
When enough has accumulated, grate in very small pieces 
and put through the food-chopper, using the medium cutter 
first, and then the fine cutter. To one cupful of this granu- 
lated soap add one and one-half cupfuls of corn-meal and 
put through the food-chopper again until reduced to a 
coarse meal. This may be facilitated by rubbing be- 
tween the hands to loosen the particles. When all will pass 
readily through a meal sieve, add one ounce of olive oil to 
each two and one-half cupfuls of the soap and cornmeal 
mixture. Blend thoroughly. An ordinary fruit jar with 
the rubber ring in place makes a good container. A quan- 
tity of this soap powder kept on the kitchen sink or in the 
bathroom will be found invaluable for cleansing very soiled 
hands and keeping them soft and smooth, besides being 
perfectly harmless and costing next to nothing. 

— Good Housekeeping Discovery. 
39 



section m 



Routine 
Household Tasks 



Chapter. I — The Daily Routine of Downstairs Care 
Chapter II — The Daily Routine of Upstairs Care 
Chapter HI — Dishwashing" Three Times a Day 
Chapter IV— The Care of the Refrigerator 



CHAPTER I 



The Daily Routine 
of Downstairs Care 

BECAUSE these directions for care of downstairs rooms 
are so concrete and explicit they may not conform in 
all details with your requirements ; but they can be so easily 
revised to meet a varying need in the individual family 
as to time and special duties, that I offer them as a guide 
to any housekeeper who wishes to plan a routine of work 
either for herself or a paid helper. 

Be on duty and ready for work downstairs at 7 :30 A. M. 
Open front hall door and dining- and living-room windows 
for a few moments to give them a thorough airing. This 
is even more necessary in winter than in summer months 
when the house is presumably open during the night as 
well as the day. 

While the windows are open "tidy" the hall and living- 
room. Eeplace magazines, and fold newspapers, but do 
not destroy them until next day. Restore misplaced furni- 
ture, adjust slip covers trimly, and "plump" all cushions. 

43 



BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



Empty ash trays and nut bowls. Remove any wilted 
flowers. This is especially important. No room looks 
fresh and inviting with flowers other than of the freshest. 
Give the same attention to the living-room porch, the 
library or den, or both of them. The before breakfast 
care is much more of a freshening process than a " clean- 
ing/' as you will see. Indeed in most families the " clut- 
ter' ' is often confined to the one favorite room, be it den, 
living-porch or library, so that while all of them have to 
be planned for in the schedule, the half-hour allowed is 
ample to thus care for all the rooms. 

Next set the breakfast table. Sort the mail, and place the 
letters on the table at their respective cover places. Serve 
breakfast at 8 o'clock. Keep the coffee hot for late comers 
by covering the percolator as it stands on the table with a 
tea cozy. Do not try to keep it hot in the kitchen. An elec- 
tric grill in the butler's pantry is excellent for this if 
used on "low" heat. 

Immediately after breakfast clear the table and wash the 
silver only. Then complete the routine care of the living- 
room before washing dishes. If possible sandwich some of 
this work between serving breakfast to the late ones, if 
there should be any. 

Dust mop the living-porch floor. Water the window box 
plants. "Wash and fill the dog's water trays. Empty and 
wash ash trays. Then dust, using one of the dustless cloths 
rather than furniture polish, because this furniture is 

44 



THE DAILY ROUTINE OF DOWNSTAIRS CARE 

painted. For stained willow the polish cloth may be used. 
In the living-room, see that the wood basket has a supply 
of medium sized wood, and kindling if necessary. Keep a 
small fire laid unless the hearth is so hot that the wood 
might ignite. Sweep the hearth with a small hearth brush. 
Empty waste paper baskets, ash trays and smoking stands. 
Throw away no newspapers or magazines that are not in 
waste baskets. Dust mop the floor and run the carpet 
sweeper over the rug. Dust, if necessary. This last di- 
rection may need a word of explanation. Because of the 
presence of two dogs in my own household, one a long- 
haired Pekingese with a wonderful coat, the other an 
Irish Terrier, rug care was absolutely essential in this 
house every morning, but because a vacuum cleaner is 
used for the weekly rug cleaning, daily dusting is rarely 
necessary, especially in summer, although the house is 
within two hundred feet of a main traveled road. But 
let your own requirements govern this direction. 

Pill the flower vases if in summer and polish the silver 
vases, candlesticks, etc., with a quick wipe, using a silver 
polishing cloth instead of a duster. In tidying the rooms 
keep one place, a convenient drawer or a large tray basket 
in a wood standard, for the small personal belongings 
that might have been left out of place by any member of 
the family. It saves time on the part of the worker as 
well as the careless one who otherwise must hunt for a 
small, but needed possession. Put everything, of whose 

45 



BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



proper place you are in the least doubtful, in this basket. 
As soon as you have finished with the living-room you may 
wash dishes. Next run the carpet sweeper over the dining- 
room rug and dust the room carefully. Pay special at- 
tention to window sills and trim in summer and the 
radiator or register in winter, when each is the main 
source of dust. In dusting this room, again don't forget 
to use the silver polishing cloth for a quick wipe-over of 
any silver pieces that may be on table, buffet or serving 
table. Eub the furniture, especially the table top, with 
the merest suspicion, a drop or two, of either furniture 
polish or liquid wax, on a silk or velvetine cloth. Polish 
with a clean dry cloth. Should you find a white fog mark, 
it can be removed by wiping over with a cloth wrung as 
dry as possible from hot water, to which a few drops 
of ammonia have been added. Finish by polishing* with 
furniture polish. Heat marks are not so easily removed, 
but a daily rub of this character will act as a preventive 
for many scars and will make those already there much 
better in appearance. 

Occasionally a grease spot is found on a seat cushion. If 
of hair-cloth, scrub with soap and only enough water to 
moisten the brush. If of leather, you must use more oil, 
preferably neat 's foot, rubbing the entire surface to give it 
a uniform color. By the way, leather furniture should 
be given this oil rub occasionally, preferably at the time 
of the spring or fall house cleaning, in order to prevent 
the leather from drying and cracking. 

46 



TEE DAILY ROUTINE OF DOWNSTAIRS CARE 

Some one may suggest that this routine of daily care is 
suitable only where maid service is available. On the con- 
trary, if the housekeeper herself must attend to it the 
schedule offers the best of preparation for her day of 
specialized toil. For not one of us but works more easily 
in kitchen or laundry for the assurance of a tidy house. 

Again, it is an ideal responsibility for the small son and 
daughter, since not one of the tasks involved is beyond 
their strength and it is a type of work that will help to 
overcome their own tendency to leave their possessions 
where they last used them. 

ANOTHER USE FOR THE BLOTTER 

When you upset the bowl of flowers on the waxed or var- 
nished surface of your mahogany table, instead of using a 
cloth or towel, rush to your desk and get a blotter. The 
absorbent surface will soak up the water, leaving neither 
smear nor cloudy mark. 

— Good Eousekeepvng Discovery. 

WHEN GREASE DROPS ON THE FLOOR 

If grease is spilled on the floor throw ice-cold water on it 
immediately, or the coldest water available. This will 
harden the grease so that it will not soak into the wood of 
the floor to any great extent, and it will be a comparatively 
easy matter to clean the floor. 

— Good Housekeeping Discovery. 
47 



BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



INDISPENSABLE TO TEE KITCHEN 

I have found a thick cardboard about twenty-four by 
eighteen inches in size covered tightly with oilcloth almost 
indispensable in the kitchen. I use it to protect my table 
or oven top from the blackened bottoms of pans or greasy 
or wet dishes or kitchen ware. It can be easily and quickly 
wiped off, and takes the place of newspapers which many 
people use but are rather unsightly after being used once. 

— Good Housekeeping Discovery. 

INK SPOTS ON THE FLOOR 

When ink is spilled on any waxed floor, hardwood or soft 
wood, mop it up quickly with a soft cloth. Then rub the 
spot with fine steel wool wet in clear warm water. Finish 
with a clean wet cloth, allow to dry, and apply wax. Not 
a trace of ink will be left if you work quickly. 

— Good Housekeeping Discovery. 

RAISING THE KITCHEN TABLE 

A kitchen table that is too low for a tall woman to work at 
comfortably may serve a double purpose. Cover it with 
white table oilcloth (or zinc or glass if the pocketbook per- 
mits) and have a carpenter or the " handy man about the 
house ' ' make a second table top raised on four supports to 
the proper height. The original surface then makes a con- 
venient shelf for many small utensils and kitchen acces- 
sories. — Good Housekeeping Discovery. 

48 



THE DAILY ROUTINE OF DOWNSTAIRS CARE 

FOR SCRATCHED FURNITURE 

When we moved recently, several pieces of walnut furni- 
ture were badly scratched — not great gouges, such as would 
make refinishing absolutely necessary; just unsightly 
scratches. Mother cut about one-quarter of an inch from 
one end of a brazil nut kernel, rubbed this freshly-cut 
oily surface over the scratches, and they disappeared. Of 
course, the depressions are still there, but the ugly whitish 
streaks are obliterated. Now, whoever does the dusting in 
our house does it with a piece of brazil nut kernel in her 
work-apron pocket. — Good Housekeeping Discovery. 

MORE KITCHEN TABLE SPACE 

If you need more table or shelf room in your kitchen, make 
an oilcloth slip for your ironing-board table, stand it in 
a convenient place, and you will find it a real help. The 
oilcloth slip may be easily removed on ironing day, and you 
make your ironing board do double service. 

— Good Housekeeping Discovery. 



49 



CHAPTER II 



The Daily Routine 
of Upstairs Care 

SO soon as the downstairs general work is completed, go 
upstairs to the rooms already left airing by their 
occupants . 

Tidy the bathrooms first. Clean and disinfect the bowls, 
wipe off faucets. Wash and replace drinking glasses. 
Wash floor only once a week unless needed. Return any 
supplies to medicine cabinet. Wash the tub, even though 
each user accomplishes the same task. Renew soap, and 
bathroom supplies from the store shelf. Keep in the bath- 
room a basket containing a package of friction powder 
especially adapted for use on porcelain, and enamel; a 
flannel polishing cloth for the nickel, long handled woven 
wire brushes for use in the bowl and bath tub, a bottle of 
any household disinfectant and finally a bottle of a mixture 
of half turpentine and half water with enough oil of 
lavender to cut the odor. There is nothing better for 
cleaning porcelain and enamel than a small quantity of 
this mixture applied on the brush and followed by a 

50 



TEE DAILY ROUTINE OF UPSTAIRS CARE 

scrubbing with hot water. Even the sticky deposit from 
hard water yields. 

Renew linen from the linen closet. Hang fresh linen 
towels of two sizes as well as bath towels. Be sure to give 
the guest bath room an inspection visit, even though there 
be no guest. 

"Do up" one room at a time. Put away garments and 
shoes. Disturb personal possessions as little as possible. 
Tidy around them. The very first step in bed making is 
bed airing. Be sure that both big and little members of 
a family open windows wide and throw clothes and pad 
clear back over the footboard in order that air and sun 
may reach them. It is not necessary to turn a mattress 
every day ; once a week is ample to keep any mattress in 
good condition. 

At the same time put on fresh linen, changing both lower 
and upper sheets. Some housekeepers prefer to use the 
upper sheet again as a lower and thus reduce the linen 
laundry. There can be no real objection, so let the in- 
dividual preference govern this. The point is to have a 
system and use it, making the change each week on the 
same day. In my home, Saturday is the day. Pillow- 
cases are changed twice each week, oftener if there happens 
to be a victim of insomnia to consider. A fresh pillow- 
case is a real invitation to slumber. 

Much more comfort is afforded where the slip is selected 
large enough in size that the pillow may have freedom. 

51 



BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



A tight pillow-case means a hard, tight bundle under the 
shoulders and head. It wears the pillow-case, it wears 
the pillow, and it wears the nerves of the sleeper. Learn 
to use pillows as flat as possible. 

Next, use a soft floor mop, paving especial attention to the 
floor under beds. The downy fluff found there is not 
dust but the fluff from blankets. Better still, run the 
vacuum cleaner over the bare floor, once a week. Also 
once a week use the wax or oil polish mop, and vacuum 
clean the rugs. Dust a sleeping room every day. Wipe 
off dressing-tables and dressers if glass covered. Dust if 
linen covered, and renew linen only when needed. Once a 
month is ample where daily care is thus given. 

Remove thermos water jugs and carry downstairs to be 
filled for use the following night. See that all candlesticks 
have candles in them with a safety match box at hand for 
lighting in emergency. 

Finally, dustmop the hall, and on laundry day sort and 
put away the clean linen. Carry the basket filled with 
11 mending' ' into the sewing room for attention there. 

Beds and Bed-Making 

Just a word about the choice of equipment. There is real 
reasoning as well as fashion in the growing use of single 
beds. Children are more comfortable, less likely to 
transmit the annoying, small infections of childhood, and 
finally, far less apt to develop a tendeacjr to restlessness 

52 



THE DAILY ROUTINE OF UPSTAIRS CARE 

and the insomnia of later life. It is a child's right to 
sleep alone from the standpoint of his health even more 
than his comfort 

But a practical difficulty immediately arises. Many a home 
is already equipped with double beds and cannot see its 
way clear to scrap expensive equipment. One mother solved 
this by cutting her wide sheets in two and making eaeh 
half of the bed separately. She even alternated head and 
foot for the two little occupants. Again, when room space 
is an item, use the narrow two-feet six-inch boarding- 
school bed. It can be found in simple metal designs. 

Single beds for comfortable sleeping do not necessarily 
have to be expensive beds. A choice of wood or metal can 
now be made without loss of tight, sanitary construction 
in the case of wooden beds, or loss of beauty in the case 
of metal beds. Indeed these latter are now made simulat- 
ing the wood beds in line, color, and finish. 

The simplest of springs can be chosen with little difference 
in comfort on these narrow beds, but box springs have an 
advantage when the first cost can be afforded, in the 
lessened care required to keep them clean and free from 
dust. 

If you have suffered discomfort in one of the expensive 
box-spring-equipped beds, here may be a solution. Insert 
two half- or three-quarter-inch blocks of wood on both 
sides beneath the spring at both the head and at 
the center of the bed. This will make the spring more 

53 



BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



nearly level and therefore comfortable. In making 
box-springs a manufacturer has stated it is not possible 
to tuft them as much at head and foot and therefore, 
until the bed has been slept in long enough to take up this 
difference there is an unpleasant drop at the head. 

In selecting the mattress, however, be careful to choose a 
softer one than would be permissible on a wide bed. It 
may be of any chosen filling so long as this specification 
is filled. If of hair, be sure it is not packed firmly and 
closely. I realize this is radical advice; but I have tried 
both kinds and found that every person who slept on a 
certain narrow bed equipped with a most expensive, firmly 
packed hair mattress was an eager candidate for a change 
in room quarters. It was not the bed or the spring, for 
comfort came on the identical bed equipped with a softer 
mattress. By the way, these are long-lived on single beds, 
for they do not sag or get out of shape. 

I wonder if we realize the strides that have been made in 
pillow construction. In the old home are still the ' ' down ' ' 
pillows with which my grandmother as a bride equipped 
her home. "Down," did I say? Yes, it was as near down 
.as the crude hand-picking methods could obtain, but these 
pillows weigh heavy indeed beside the present day manu- 
facture of similar rated quality. In selecting, make sure 
that your pillows are made of cleanly, new materials and 
in a cleanly way. Buy only those marked with a tag stat- 
ing this fact. Pillow contents can carry infection, so it 
is well worth while to guard against this possibility. 

54 



THE DAILY ROUTINE OF UPSTAIRS CARE 

Just a word about length in sheets and blankets. Extra 
length means far more comfort and correspondingly less 
work in keeping bedding clean. The stock sizes 99-inch 
or 108-inch length sheets are the only two permissible. 
The narrow 63-inch sheet is often difficult to find in the 
longer dimension, so I give the 99-inch alternative, but buy 
the longer one when you can, for it affords ample material 
both for tucking in deeply at the foot and for a protecting 
covering for the blankets. Incidentally I have never seen 
either length procurable in a "special sale." 

Blankets can easily be lengthened with a 14-inch strip of 
strong cotton flannel stitched across the bottom. All this 
can be used for tucking at the foot, leaving the high-priced 
wool as the real bed covering. It is not always easy to 
purchase long blankets in the retail shops, although the 
manufacturers make them a full 90 inches. I am taking it 
for granted that you cut your blankets in two and bind 
both halves. 

The top covering for a bed may, of course, be as elaborate 
and beautiful as one pleases, but the simple dimity or light- 
weight washable spread is excellent for every-day family 
use. The beds look well; they can easily be kept looking 
well ; and the process of undressing the bed for occupancy 
is not so tedious and annoying that the family rebel and a 
single overworked maid must be asked to make the rounds 
for this preparation. 

55 



BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



As a final suggestion for equipment, see that every mat- 
tress has its quilted pad, both for protection and comfort. 
This pad smooths out the tuftings of the mattress and 
prevents an occasional hair from penetrating both mattress 
cover and sheet to the discomfort of the sleeper. 

When ready for the actual making of the bed, spread the 
mattress pad smoothly over the mattress. Next open the 
sheet and turn under at the foot on both sides, using the 
same amount of sheet to insure a straight line at the foot. 
Do not try to make one whole side of a bed before you go 
around to the other side, even at the cost of more steps, 
because the taut, smooth unwrinkled lower sheet so neces- 
sary to comfort cannot be secured unless an even tucking 
in at the foot is first secured. Now pull the sheet smooth 
and as tight as you can at either top side. This smooth 
sleeping surface is the secret of comfort. 

In the same way put on the top sheet, though in this case 
it is seldom necessary to work on both sides of the bed 
for smoothing out of the top section, since the arms will 
reach over any but the wider beds. The only thing to 
be careful of is that the line at the foot is a straight line. 
Use enough sheet for tucking in to secure strength. If a 
bed is thus started, it can be remade next day with very 
little attention to the foot, since even the most restless of 
sleepers cannot pull the clothes out of line. 

There is a bit of a wrinkle in putting on a blanket that 
needs a word of explanation. First, if your blankets are 

56 



THE DAILY ROUTINE OF UPSTAIRS CARE 

short, lay one of them on the bed, reaching only to the foot 
and with no attempt to tuck it in. 

Lay the second one lower down to give you plenty of 
"tuck-in" material, and you will find that it will hold the 
first one securely in place, giving strength and shoulder 
warmth as well. When the blanket is tucked squarely 
under the mattress at the foot, lay each side back and over 
the mattress along the side until the side edge of the blanket 
is at right angles with the bottom line of the mattress. 
Now tuck the lower edge of blanket smoothly under the 
mattress, then bring the whole blanket down over mattress 
side and fold smoothly under it. You will find that you 
have a clean-cut diagonal fold line, and that it holds the 
clothes as if in a vise against the most active childish or 
adult restlessness. Don't try to follow this direction men- 
tally. Perform each stage of the task as directed and the 
puzzling directions clarify much as knitting or crocheting 
directions do. 

WHEN SCRUBBING THE TUB 

The brushes sold by various manufacturers to be used for 
cleaning the toilet bowl are just right for the bath tub as 
well, and save a great deal of stooping and kneeling and 
reaching when the tub is scrubbed. 

— Good Housekeeping Discovery. 

A NEW USE FOR ADHESIVE TAPE 

If adhesive tape is put on the sharp angle at the foot of a 
bed-spring frame, accidental three-cornered tears in one's 

57 



BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



sheets will be eliminated. "Where the youngsters make 
their own beds, I found that the above idea helped con- 
siderably. — Good Housekeeping Discovery^ 

TO KEEP THE DRESSER MIRROR IN PLACE 

"When the mirror on a dresser is fastened on in such a way 
that it will not stay at a desirable angle, either through 
wear or otherwise, there is one sure way of making it 
stay, and that is to place between the mirror frame and 
the post a cube of Art Gum. They can be had at the 
ten-cent store at two for a nickel, and beat paper wads 
and other materials, because they will stick in place, can 
be easily moved, and are out of sight. Try it and be 
surprised! — Good Housekeeping Discovert/. 

TO CLEAN COMBS 

The quickest and most completely successful way to clean 
a comb is to use the ordinary string comb cleaner slightly 
moistened with carbon tetrachloride. The grease solvent 
instantly dissolves the oil which holds the soil on the comb, 
leaving it as clean as when new. Any of the commercial 
spot removers or dry cleaning preparations may be used 
instead of carbon tetrachloride, though the latter, being 
non-proprietary, is sometimes cheaper. 

— Good Housekeeping Discovery. 

AN EFFICIENT BATHROOM 

I find that my bathroom is kept in better order when I 
provide a towel bar for each member of the family, with 

58 



THE DAILY ROUTINE OF UPSTAIRS CARE 

two rust-proof hooks at the side of each bar. One hook is 
for the tooth brush, and one for the wash cloth, which 
always has a tape sewed in one corner for hanging it up. 
On another wall, I keep one or two towel bars for guests, 
and in an inconspicuous corner I have a hook for my clean- 
ing cloth which is hemmed with a loop for hanging. Beside 
the cleaning cloth is a nail for the scrubbing brush, and in 
the medicine closet is a shelf reserved for cleaning powder 
and soap. I step into the bathroom on my morning clean- 
ing round, and find all my materials at hand, with no 
need to waste steps collecting them. 

— Good Housekeeping Discovery. 

A NEW USE FOR A RUBBER SPONGE 

Quite accidentally I discovered that an old rubber sponge 
is excellent for cleaning the porcelain in the bathroom. It 
retains the scouring powder, produces a good amount of 
friction, and does not become stringy as a cloth does. It 
is easily rinsed, and is a joy to handle. 

— Good Housekeeping Discovery. 

FOR THE SURFACE OF THE DRESSING-TABLE 

The surface of the child's or young girl's dressing-table is 
only too often marred by nicks or spilled perfume, lotions, 
etc. Glass tops are expensive, but a thick blotter cut to 
the exact size needed is a splendid substitute. It does not 
show under the cover, and prolongs the life of furniture. 

— Good Housekeeping Discovery. 
59 



CHAPTER III 



Dishwashing 
Three Times a Day 



ASSEMBLE your tools first of all. If you have a ma- 
chine for washing dishes see that it is clean and 
ready. For hand washing you will need a dish pan, pref- 
erably of the fiber variety, a capacious dish drainer, a soap 
shaker, a dish mop or dishwashing brush, and plenty of 
clean, dry towels and scrubbing cloths. 

For the silver and china use only a neutral soap or soap 
preparation. It is a safe rule to purchase only this type 
of soap for kitchen use. Surely the dishes one eats from 
are as important to have washed with a neutral soap as 
one's hands. 

For the cooking dishes provide friction powders, soap 
powders and steel wool. 

You will need a sink drainer to scrape the remnants into 
and you will need refrigerator dishes, preferably enamel, 
to hold the leftovers. 

60 



DISHWASHING THREE TIMES A DAY 

Clear the dining-table and care for leftover food first of 
all. Never put it away in serving dishes. If you clear the 
table by courses, dispose of the food from each course as 
you bring it into the kitchen. Do not place in the re- 
frigerator, however, until it has cooled. 

Complete the dining-room work, folding cloth and silence 
cloth or luncheon set, and sending the napkins to laundry 
when necessary. Never put linen back into the drawer 
if it is not to be again used. 

Eeturn to kitchen, scrape all dishes clean into the sink 
drainer, pile in as compact a space as possible on a table 
or the drainboard farthest away from the china closet. 
Wash and dry toward their final destination. 

Sort the cooking dishes and fill with water. If there 
should be any with burned on food add a teaspoon or more 
of washing soda, and allow to heat while you are washing 
the china. The most stubborn kettle will yield to this treat- 
ment. For aluminum kettles, this method is not suitable — 
instead use steel wool ; if badly burned allow to heat, dry, 
directly over the fire; when the burned portion will chip 
off; finish with the steel wool. 

Next rinse off silver and china, using either warm or cold 
water. One of the faucet attachments for washing dishes 
is ideal for this purpose. Even without one, however, 
you can hold each dish under the faucet until flushed off 
with the aid of dish mop or brush. The stream of water 
may be a very tiny one and still do the work quickly. Be 

61 



BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



especially careful with dinner plates, salad plates, dessert 
and serving dishes. Glassware, unless used for serving 
dishes, does not need this rinse. 

They are now ready either for packing into the machine 
or for a hot soapy wash. Use water far too hot for the 
hand to bear and a suds made with the soap shaker filled 
with soap. Put the silver in first and lift out as soon as 
clean with the aid of the dish mop, placing in the dish 
drainer. 

Next wash the glasses, one at a time. Dry immediately 
without further rinsing and while both silver and glasses 
are almost too hot to touch. They will dry with a glisten 
that will astonish you. 

Next wash cups, saucers, bread and butter plates, etc. The 
plates and saucers may be placed in a pile in the hot soapy 
water, washed and removed one at a time. But the cups 
should be handled singly. 

Never have a mass of dishes in your dishpan. 

Renew water and soap as often as it cools so that it no 
longer heats the dishes. For that is the secret of this 
method. Have the water so hot that the dishes dry with 
a polish and have the water so clean that they will not 
need another rinse. I have used this method in summer 
where the tea kettle was the only source of hot water, and 
I found that instead of using more, I needed less hot 
water, and fewer dish towels. Remember the dishes are 

62 



DISHWASHING THREE TIMES A DAY 

practically clean before you start to wash them, and they 
are practically dry from heat before you start to dry them. 

Dry cups and small plates with the china towels. Eenew 
water and wash dinner, salad and dessert plates, next and 
in their order. 

Wipe each set as soon as washed, placing the next in the 
hot water while you are drying the first. Put away in 
china closet unless you have a service wagon that can be 
loaded for but one or two trips. 

Renew hot water and wash each serving dish and platter 
with the suds. Wipe silver platters dry promptly and 
while still very hot. The tarnish which is due to the action 
of moisture left on these platters is reddish in color and 
the hardest of all types to remove even with silver cleaners. 
They must be wiped perfectly dry after each use. This pre- 
vention is the best of all cures. 

Next wash mixing bowls, cooking bowls and baking dishes 

of the vitrified china, pottery or glass variety. If these 
have been soaking in water they will not be hard to do. 
The brown caramel stains of the cooking dishes can be 
quickly removed with a mat of steel wool. 

Stack these dishes neatly in the drainer and rinse with a 
pitcher of hot water. Notice that this is the first time you 
have needed this rinse. Dry only after thorough draining. 

Next wash saucepans and roasting pan or broiler. And 
now is the time to tackle the saucepan that has been heat- 

63 



BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



ing with washing soda. When each one is clean wipe as dry 
as possible with your dish cloth wrung dry, then place on 
the stove to become thoroughly dry. Place them on the 
back of a coal range or on top of the gas oven with one 
burner turned very low. 

Lastly, wash coffee or tea pot directly under a faucet of 
fresh water if possible. Empty grounds first, then use 
plenty of water, a clean brush with scouring soap and 
steel wool, but no soap suds. When clean wipe and place 
on range to complete drying. Rinse out the dish pan and 
fill again with hot soapy water. Let the dish towels stand 
in this while the kitchen is tidied and the food put away. 
Then wash them, rinse quickly and hang them in the air 
to dry. Finish the task of dish washing by washing the 
sink out with hot suds and a mop. I only accent the mop 
because the water should be too hot for the hand. For 
routine use nothing else is needed for a white sink of any 
variety. The red stains due to iron will yield to a very 
weak acid solution. And the brownish stains due to other 
salts in the water supply are best removed by an occasional 
application of Javelle Water but no gritty powder should 
ever be used. Once the fine sheen is marred constant scour- 
ing is needed. Try the hot suds treatment and I am sure 
you will be convinced. 

It is more than possible that some housekeepers who have 
used other methods of washing dishes, stacking them in 
a drainer and allowing them to dry after a hot rinse may 

64 



DISHWASHING THREE TIMES A DAY 

think the method outlined entails more work, but where 
the number of dishes amount to more than a single drainer 
load you may find it a quicker method. But even in a 
small family it is a practical method of teaching and always 
results in the spotless china we demand for our tables. 

ELIMINATING THE DISHPAN 

I keep a servantless house in these days of high-priced help, 
and hence try to reduce the housework to a minimum 
amount of energy expended. In place of using the ordi- 
nary hot dishpan to clean my dishes, I have attached to the 
hot water faucet of the kitchen a bath-tub spray, the nozzle 
end of which is equipped with the usual rubber brush 
through which the water passes. I arrange my dishes in 
a large wire drain basket, which I place in the sink. I 
then turn the warm water on full force and direct the 
powerful spray upon the dishes. The water striking them 
with such force readily cleans the sides of the dishes which 
it strikes. I then turn off the water and rearrange my 
dishes so that when I turn on the warm spray again, it will 
strike the reverse side. Then I rinse them with hot water. 
Cooking utensils I clean separately with the spray. Where 
food has adhered solidly to them, the mere spray alone will 
not thoroughly clean them. In such cases I rub the rubber 
brush nozzle, with the warm water turned on full force, 
against them. The combined force of the water and rub- 
bing action of the brush thoroughly cleans them. 

• — Good Housekeeping Discovery. 
65 



BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



TO DRY A DISH MOP 

Stand your dish mop in an empty milk bottle to dry. The 
stick will be stationary, and the disheveled top-knot will 
sun nicely before a kitchen window and keep sweet and 
clean. — Good Housekeeping Discovery. 

DOCTORING DISH TOWELS 

When your dish towels become so thin and "slimpsey" that 
they get soaked through almost immediately, try stitching 
two of them together, and you will find they have double 
life and you double comfort in using them. They need not 
be the same size. Set the smaller one neat and straight on 
the other and stitch along the edge. I also use up worn 
bedroom towels in this way. They are often of nice huck 
or damask, but too shabby for the bedroom; put two to- 
gether, and you have a splendidly absorbent dish towel. I 
do not recommend this process for hand towels, as the 
double thickness will annoy in such use, but for dish towels 
I find it a great success. 

— Good Housekeeping Discovery. 



66 



CHAPTER IV 



The Care 
of the Refrigerator 

1D0 not know of any department of housework that has 
been more influenced by new methods of manufacture 
than the care of the refrigerator. The daily or weekly 
scalding scrub used to be absolutely necessary because a 
mold or bacteria might easily lurk in the seams of the 
lining if any less drastic method were used. Destruction of 
all germs and molds are far more important than any 
possible consideration of ice economy. 

Today, however, this is not true; the manufacturer sup- 
plies sanitary seamless linings and the wise housekeeper 
takes advantage of this fact by revising her routine care. 
Such a refrigerator should receive daily attention if any 
food is spilled. Shelves may be removed, cleaned and 
cooled before returning. But into the refrigerator itself 
should go only a cloth wrung out of cold water to which 
a generous amount of baking soda has been added. Work 
quickly and as soon as the damage is repaired wipe dry 
with a clean cloth. This method saves not only the ice con- 

67 



BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



sumption but food spoilage as well, because if warm or 
hot water is used, the box is filled with condensing 
moisture and food tends to spoil more quickly in such 
atmospheres. 

The new refrigerator, then, is kept clean by care in its 
use. Never use scalding water in the food compartment. 
Even in the drain, use it only when absolutely necessary, 
substituting a weekly brushing with strong sal soda water. 
Any odorless disinfectant may be used hare as well, but 
be sure that it is odorless. 

There are times when the drastic scalding treatment is in- 
dicated — as after any serious food spoilage, or if the ice 
has been entirely melted before replenishment was pos- 
sible. Under such conditions use plenty of scalding soda 
water, then wipe dry and air thoroughly before closing 
the box. Just before closing wipe again with a dry ab- 
sorbent linen towel to trap any possible moisture. 

Finally, just a few words about placement and seasonal 
care. Never keep a refrigerator on a porch or exposed to 
the elements in any way. Remember it is a delicate bit of 
cabinet work and will deteriorate so fast as to seriously 
affect your investment. If space forces it onto the porch, 
build a substantial closet for it with a waterproof roof and 
double hung doors, opening down the center to the full 
width of the refrigerator. Such a housing protects your 
refrigerator and conserves its ice consumption. 

68 



TEE CARE OF THE REFRIGERATOR 

At least once a year renew the finish — varnish, shellac, or 
enamel painted, depending on its original coat. In this 
way you will prevent any possible warping of the wood 
in case of " sweating. " 

And this sweating, by the way, may result from any one 
or both of two conditions. The first one is unavoidable. 
It is not humanly possible to so insulate the box that 
there will be no apparent difference between the temper- 
atures of the outside casing of the box and the room. Be- 
cause the room temperature is higher any humidity in the 
air of the room is bound to show as condensation on the 
outside of the box. It is, of course, worse on moisture 
laden <7 dog days." The only way to prevent it in time 
warping the doors by seeping into the wood, is to keep 
the moisture wiped off and give the box a weekly rub with 
any wax or oil furniture polish. This fills the wood pores 
and repels the moisture. The second condition is even more 
within your control. The iceman in chipping a cake of 
ice to fit your needs often leaves tiny bits of ice or a small 
amount of water on the ice compartment ledge. In time 
the door does not fit " quite so well" and trouble starts 
through warping. Watch this ledge then and keep it dry. 



69 



SECTION IV 



Special 
Household Tasks 



Chapter I — Silver Cleaning 

Chapter II— Metal Cleaning 

Chapter III — Floor Treatment and Care 

Chapter IV — Furniture Cleaning and Polishing 

Chapter V — Closet and Storeroom Care 

Chapter VI — Cellar Care and Cleanliness 

Chapter VII — Spring Renovating 

Chapter VIII — Seasonal Housecleaning 

Chapter IX — Safe Procedure in Closing a House 



CHAPTER I 



The Task 
of Cleaning Silver 



SELECT one day in the week's routine for silver clean- 
ing. Wednesday afternoon, immediately after lun- 
cheon, works well in my household, since laundry is dis- 
posed of and Thursday is the usual short day. 

Provide yourself with the proper supplies and tools. You 
will need silver-cleaning compounds in powder, paste or 
liquid form; a small brush and flannel cloths for applica- 
tion of the compound. Provide two silver polishing 
cloths, one for upstairs use and one for downstairs use as 
dusting polishers. It is a question whether to include one 
of the electrolytic cleaning-plates, to be used in an enameled 
kettle of water containing its proper proportion of salt 
and soda. The sole disadvantage of the outfit is the 
tendency there seems to be to offer by house-to-house can- 
vass thin strips of metal too small to be of any practical 
value. The charge is often exorbitant with as exorbitant 
claims for efficiency. Oftentimes there is a false claim 

73 



BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



made of Good Housekeeping Institute approval. There- 
fore, be sure that the plate you purchase is generous in 
size and reasonably thick, with no sharp edges, and that 
the price is reasonable. And by the way an aluminum 
pie tin used upside down in the kettle makes an excellent 
easily cleaned plate for this purpose. 

Mentally divide the house silver into two groups : the table 
silver, flat ware, serving dishes and platters should be 
cleaned as one operation. Dressing-table fittings, vases, 
candlesticks, and silver ornaments are a separate task 
better accomplished on a separate day. Unless you are 
near the seashore or in otherwise trying climate conditions 
this latter group may not need a drastic cleaning for 
months, especially if you use one of the new silver lacquers 
that protect the metal from oxidation. 

Daily care consists merely of dusting them with a silver 
polishing cloth instead of the usual buffer in the process 
of daily tidying. Thus, in one pocket of your apron tuck 
a duster ; in the other pocket keep a silver polishing cloth. 
Dust the china vase with a regular duster but use the 
polishing cloth for the silver vase. Such daily care takes 
no added time and is invaluable in saving real work with 
the larger pieces. If silver ware is imperfectly dried after 
washing it is far more difficult to keep clean and get clean 
because of a chemical action of the water. You can save 
yourself much work then by thoroughly drying all table 
ware either flat or serving dishes before putting it away. 

74 



TEE TASK OF CLEANING SILVER 

When ready for the task assemble all the silver that must 
be cleaned and brush and dust out carefully the silver 
drawer compartment. 

Cleaning by Electrolysis 

If you use the electrolytic method, here is the proper 
procedure. Into an enamel kettle of boiling hot water 
place a teaspoonful each of salt and baking soda to each 
quart of water used. Place a strip of aluminum in the bot- 
tom of the kettle, next add the flat silver helter-skelter 
and leave in for five minutes. Keep the water at boiling 
temperature. Each piece should touch another piece to 
make a continuous connection with the aluminum when 
the silver will all be cleaned perfectly of its tarnish, even 
though every piece does not actually touch the plate. Be- 
cause the process involves a chemical reaction the silver 
must be removed to a pan filled with warm water soap suds 
and washed thoroughly to remove any soil that may have 
been softened by the process. Then rinse and dry. If you 
do not like the hard brightness of this clean silver; use, as 
I do, one of the silver polishing cloths for a final rub. The 
result is a beautifully soft polish. 

The method is especially excellent for flat silver because 
it is so ideally clean. It is a safe method to use on all plain 
or brushed silver, either solid or plated. It should never be 
used on any metal of whose composition you have any 
doubt. Oxidized finish from silver and silver plate is im- 
mediately destroyed in this cleaning process, so never use 

75 



BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



it when you want to retain this grayed finish. German 
silver and metal alloys commonly used in bag tops, etc., are 
ruined because they are not really silver or silver plate. So- 
called Dutch silver is not pure silver and should be cleaned 
only with soap, water and polishing cloth. Even the solid 
silver and plated silver in so-called Dutch design should 
be cleaned by this process only when its attractive oxidiz- 
ing is no longer desired. 

But even though you adopt the electrolytic method of 
cleaning silver there still must remain a miscellaneous 
group that had better be cleaned with a paste or powder 
or a cleaning compound applied on a cloth. A tooth brush 
makes an excellent tool to clean heavily chased pieces. Ap- 
ply the cleaning compound, rub until clean, brush out the 
accumulated compound from all crevices, wash in hot soap 
suds, dry, and polish with a silver polishing cloth. 

Always finish your tasks by replacing the silver in its 
respective places, and scour the aluminum plate so that 
it will be bright and shining ready for its next use. Many 
housekeepers do not realize that the efficiency of the plate 
depends upon its being scoured clean down to the bright 
metal after each use. 

Keep the polishing cloth protected in a box of tin or wood 
and wash only often enough to insure cleanliness. Rinse 
out the flannel cloths and brushes and pack away the en- 
tire cleaning outfit in a small box or a basket devoted to 
its purpose. 

76 



THE TASK OF CLEANING SILVER 

BLOTTERS FOR THE EMERGENCY 

I keep a pack of large, plain, white blotters in the drawer 
of my sideboard, and when anything is spilled on the din- 
ing-room linen, instead of reaching for a freshly laundered 
napkin to sop it up with, I reach at once for one of the 
blotters, and the spilled liquid is absorbed immediately 
instead of being made larger by useless sopping. This 
simple process saves considerable time in laundering, be- 
cause if it happens that milk or water has been over- 
turned, the blotter takes up the moisture so quickly and 
thoroughly that the accident may often pass entirely un- 
noticed, and the linen may be used several times more. On 
the other hand, if the stain is of fruit or coffee, the blotter 
system is equally efficient in that what there is of the spot 
is much smaller in area, so that there is less linen to be 
rubbed and scalded. — Good Housekeeping Discovery. 

CARE IN USING ELECTRICITY 

Now that electrical devices of all kinds are so constantly 
used, many women forget that certain precautions must 
be taken in their use. Never turn electricity on or off 
when you are standing on a wet or even damp floor. If 
you do so, the current is apt to pass through your body. 
This advice is particularly applicable to the kitchen, bath- 
room, and laundry where water is most likely to be spilled. 

— Good Housekeeping Discovery. 
77 



CHAPTER II 



Metal Cleaning 

BRASS, copper and nickel have been metals used so lib- 
erally in house fittings that they have proved real items 
in the work of the careful housekeeper. Even today there is 
some of this to cope with, but not in anything like the 
quantity which the olden time housekeeper was possessed 
of. 

Brass and copper should first be cleaned with a metal 
polish. It is not enough to apply the compound and dry 
and polish the metal. Both metals will stay clean longer 
if after polishing they are washed in hot water to remove 
every bit of polish. Wipe dry and give them a final rub 
with a paste made of rottenstone with enough raw linseed 
oil to make into a paste. After these metals are once 
cleaned, however, they can be covered with a lacquer 
which will protect them from oxidizing changes and result- 
ing tarnish for a considerable period. 

But if you intend to use the lacquer omit the final rub 
with rottenstone and oil. Instead, wipe the metal over 
with denatured alcohol so that every bit of moisture will 

78 



METAL CLEANING 



be removed. Apply the lacquer with a soft brush. Two 
coats of lacquer are preferable, to be sure that no "bald 
spots" are left on the metal. Allow about a half -hour 
between the coats. On door knockers, locks, and metal 
outside the house it will not remain effective as long as in- 
doors. But, even so, it eliminates many cleanings. 

When the lacquer shows signs of failing in its task, a new 
coat can be put on by giving the metal a thorough cleaning 
with denatured alcohol, applied with a soft brush. This 
softens the lacquer when it can be soaked with hot water, 
after which it can be rubbed off and renewed. 

The old fashioned pewter ware of our grandmother's day is 
extremely popular just now. It should be cleaned only 
with a very fine abrasive. Use either the finest grade of 
steel wool No. 00 with soap or a fine friction powder, when 
the pewter demands a drastic cleaning. Always wash it 
in hot soap suds after scouring and give it a final polish 
with a clean soft cloth. A paste of rottenstone and oil 
keeps clean pewter in excellent condition and with a beau- 
tiful fine gray sheen. 

Nickeled faucets are often brass in foundation, therefore 
coarse abrasives of any sort will, in time, remove the plat- 
ing, when there is nothing left to do but buy new or have 
the old faucets replated. Therefore, their best treatment 
is a washing only with soap suds. Keep them as dry as 
possible. A small stack of paper napkins kept in the 
bathroom medicine closet will furnish an easy means of 

79 



BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



wiping the bathroom fixtures dry in the routine of tidying 
up. When the nickel requires more drastic treatment use 
a prepared nickel polish. 

Cooking utensils offer perhaps the most trying kind of 
metal cleaning. Stains, and burnt on food, should be re- 
moved from aluminum ware by means of fine steel wool 
and a fine friction soap or powder or by dry heat. Any 
possible scratching of the metal must be considered as 
secondary to the completeness of cleaning. Never use 
soda. 

Soda water in solution is effective with enamel ware, if food 
has burnt on the bottom. Leave a concentrated solution 
in the container over night or allow it to come to a slow 
boil for a more rapid cleaning. Any of the friction scour- 
ing powders are a quick and excellent means of routine 
cleaning. 

Glass ware in its common cookery usage logically comes 
within the scope of metal cleaning. It often requires more 
than the mere washing with soap and water. Fine steel 
wool and scouring powder will quickly remove the brown 
stains left when food is baked on, especially around the 
top of casseroles and baking dishes. 

We need hardly give the experienced housekeeper any 
warning that metal cleaning, particularly of brass and 
copper, plays havoc with one's hands and fingernails. A 
pair of gloves, canvas, leather or rubber, a lemon cut in 
two and any good hand lotion are logically a part of the 

80 



METAL CLEANING 



metal cleaning equipment. If you will include them in your 
kit you will be repaid both in comfort and appearance. 

The Care of the Stove 

Like the refrigerators, new methods of construction have 
made a great difference in the care that must be accorded 
the kitchen range. It used to be the practice to use black 
graphite or a substitute in the form of stove polish. At 
best the polishing was an unpleasant task and the result, 
while beautiful to look at, was trying to work with since 
the polish was so soft that it yielded up its black in the 
form of smootches on the worker's utensils, apron, etc. 

For this reason, even for the coal range, I like to advise 
the use of a special cleansing oil adapted for such a pur- 
pose. Such a cleansing oil can be found at the hardware 
shops in a variety of manufactured brands. In using 
apply it liberally to a warm but not hot surface, wiping 
as dry as possible. It cleans and leaves an oil dressing 
that repels rust. It does not change a reddened surface to 
a black one and some older housekeepers, therefore, hesi- 
tate to begin its use. 

Both coal and gas ranges that have had their surfaces 
enameled are, of course, kept in good condition merely by 
the use of ordinary dusting and washing but their steel 
lids are best treated with this same oil. 

Gas stoves can be kept in excellent condition as to oven 
linings if such a cleansing oil is freely used It is a real 

81 



BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



rust preventive but will not correct the trouble after once 
rust has developed. 

In storing for the winter an oil stove or a gfas stove be 
sure that it is liberally covered with a coating of this oil. 
Cover with cloths or paper, to keep out the dust. And just 
before using wipe off all surplus and polish the stove. 
I have kept an oil range in service at the seashore for 
eight consecutive summers by such care. 

And by the way oil stoves are useful only when their 
burners are kept clean. If you have the wickless type 
of oil burner keep a whisk broom hanging near it and give 
the burners a daily brushing. Of course, wipe up any 
crums or spillage left on the tray beneath the burners and 
give the range an occasional treatment with the cleansing 
oil. In the case of the wick burner give the wicks a daily 
cleaning. It is so simply accomplished, it will take but 
a moment ; and in my case it has insured the use of the same 
wicks over this entire period of eight years. Fold over 
the forefinger a bit of soft tissue paper. Remove the 
inside burner cone or spreader and brush any loose match 
ends from the burner part. Drop the wick until it is just 
level with the outer rim of the container and wipe with 
your forefinger, using a circular motion that packs the 
carbon down evenly. If the wicks have been neglected 
it may be necessary to raise the wicks slightly and repeat 
this wiping, packing motion until you have a smooth layer. 
Never cut wicks. At the first using allow them to burn 

82 



METAL CLEANING 



raggedly until enough carbon has developed to thus smooth 
it off and pack down. Such treatment will insure you 
an even blue flame with no inefficient peaks of light. 

SHEETS BY SIZE 

I have always been bothered by not knowing what size my 
sheets were when they came out of the laundry or the 
closet. I have now one less thing to worry me; for each 
sheet is marked so that I know at once whether it is narrow, 
medium, or wide. "With a tape measure I measured every 
sheet I owned, and sorted them into three piles — narrow, 
medium, and wide. I left the narrow sheets unmarked. 
I marked the medium sheets with one cross in red marking 
cotton over the edge of the narrow hem, and I marked the 
wide sheets with two crosses in the same place. My sheets 
are now in three piles in my linen closet, and I know ex- 
actly what size sheet I am getting when I take one from the 
closet. What is more important, I can tell at a glance which 
pile the sheet belongs to, after it has been laundered. 

— Good Housekeeping Discovery. 

SAVE LEMON RIND 

After using the juice of lemons, save the rinds for whiten- 
ing your drainboard. Rub the inside of the rind over the 
board, then sprinkle with a soap cleanser. Let stand a few 
minutes, scrub with a brush, and wash clean. The result 
is well worth the effort. 

— Good Housekeeping Discovery. 
83 



CHAPTER III 



Floor Treatment 
and Care 

PERHAPS you have floors — or a floor — that show 
roughness, splinters, and cracks. It is not so hopeless 
in your scheme of efficient housekeeping as first thought 
would indicate. A number of things may be done to the 
hopeless looking floor that will make it look well and rea- 
sonably easy to care for — two things every housekeeper 
looks for in floor treatment. 

First, have you thought of plain carpeting? I mean of 
the background type. It is not expensive as carpeting 
goes and it can be found in all the plain neutral shades, 
including the browns, and it lends itself to all schemes 
of decorations. But someone asks, " Isn't carpeting dusty 
and insanitary ? ' ' Not at all, so long as our kindly friend 
the vacuum cleaner is available to make the cleaning dust- 
less. Indeed the housekeeper's whole attitude toward car- 
peting will change, I believe, once she realizes that it is 
no harder to run the vacuum cleaner over an entire carpeted 
floor than to run it over several rugs on a bare floor. 

84 



FLOOR TREATMENT AND CARE 



The greatest objection to carpeting seems to be the cost. 
It is not quite the lifetime investment that a well laid wood 
floor will prove to be. In a rented home or where first 
cost is more important than considerations of wear, it is 
a floor treatment that should be considered. 

If you have no vacuum cleaner, do not consider the 
carpeted floor. Instead there are wood floors and lino- 
leum. Linoleum is attractive in appearance even for living 
room use if you choose the neutral brown shades or tile 
patterns but don 't make the mistake of using parquet wood 
patterns. They deceive no one, and in house decoration 
as in life it is the attempt to deceive that most offends. 
Buy and use linoleum for what it is, a smooth, sanitary, 
attractive, easily cleaned floor. For halls, bedrooms, 
nursery, porches, and all downstairs service rooms it is 
excellent. 

Painted or stained varnished or shellacked floors are 

the cheapest in first cost. The cost of renewal depends 
upon the use and care, to say nothing of the quality of the 
material selected. But the real secret of a fairly good 
appearance and durability even in an old and splintery 
floor, lies, I believe, in the color — walnut brown. To be 
sure the cracks are still there, but no reflecting light 
makes the defects glaringly apparent. 

First, remove with a hand plane the loose splintery pieces, 
but do not attempt to plane it smooth. Do not fill any 
cracks. I know this sounds like heresy but crack fillers 

85 



BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



never stay "put," and they never take stain like board, 
therefore, they lose on both counts of durability and ap- 
pearance. The cracks will still be there, but you will be 
surprised how inconspicuous they become. 

Next decide on your materials. Choose a varnish stain 
which comes ready mixed or a stain to be applied and fol- 
lowed by shellac or varnish. The varnish stain which comes 
ready mixed is easier to use, and is excellent in amateur 
hands, but the colors are apt to be deeper and more opaque 
than when a stain is used. A walnut stain over 
pine boards does not conceal the grain; it accents it and 
for that reason I like to use the two applications. Where 
there is no grain beauty to develop, or you can find an 
added advantage in the ready mixed stain varnish, use it, 
since there is no object in the two operations. 

Color deserves a word — it is possible to select light colors 
for good floors of beautiful grain and smooth boards, but 
the worse the condition of the floor the more neutral and 
dark must be the color. Dark oak for medium poor floors 
is the very lightest color advisable. Never use mahogany 
stain because it is violent in color and continually invites 
you to look at the floor only to see its imperfections. Wal- 
nut is the best choice of all because it is neutral. 

It is not too difficult to stain and varnish floors yourself. 
Dress for the part in knickers or bloomers that are not 
too full, then fasten over the knees cushion pads that are 
flexible enough for comfortable moving but padded enough 

86 



FLOOR TREATMENT AND CARE 



to protect. Another method is to use a garden cushion 
and move it along as you work. Apply the stain or var- 
nish with the grain of the wood and select a brush wide 
enough to do two narrow or one wider board at one sweep. 
Thus equipped, it is easier to do an even "job." Allow 
each coat to dry thoroughly before applying a second. 
The longer a newly varnished or shellacked surface is left 
to harden and dry, the greater will be the return in dura- 
bility. 

The waxed floor is possibly most popular in the house that 
is owned, because owners are often more willing to watch 
the beauty of the floor develop as it does through years of 
actual usage. A new oak floor, even though perfectly 
waxed, is by no means as beautiful in appearance as this 
same floor will be in five years' time. The original waxing 
of a floor calls for nothing but some one of the many 
brands of paste wax. This must usually be softened by 
turpentine, until it can be easily rubbed into the floor. 
Winter application requires more turpentine than summer 
because the temperature tends to soften it. If no machine 
is available it must be applied by hand. A garden cushion 
will protect the knees against too much discomfort — apply 
liberally. There are machines now available for applying 
the wax as well as for polishing it and there are devices 
for polishing after the wax has once been applied. The 
first step is to apply paste wax. There are many good 
proprietary brands available. The wax must be soft in 

87 



BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



consistency but still have a body. If you find it rather 
hard in the can, you can soften it with turpentine, adding 
a small amount at a time until the desired consistency 
is obtained. When you have covered the entire floor, let it 
stand to permit the surface to absorb the wax and become 
dry before proceeding to the next step, which is a brush- 
ing. The floor may be brushed to work the wax into the 
pores of the wood as well as possible. The last step is a 
rubbing that gives the floor a finish or a polish if desired. 
Soft cloth is fitted over the brushes or a padded polisher 
is used and worked back and forth on the floor. The 
weight of this machine eliminates the necessity of a down- 
ward pressure on the part of the operator. 

Routine floor care, although perhaps one of the most un- 
interesting of the many cares of the housekeeper, is one 
of the most essential, for a neglected floor will greatly 
detract from the room furnishings no matter how beautiful 
they might be. 

Varnished floors may be kept polished by some one of the 
oil preparations; for this purpose one of the oil polish 
mops should be installed in a cleaning closet. Use the oil 
polish very sparingly on the oil polish mop once a week. 
The secret of perfect care of oil polished floors is that before 
the polish is added, the floor itself must be perfectly clean 
and free from dust. To use the oil polish mop to dust 
the floor is about as bad housekeeping as it is possible to 
imagine. It is a real cause for gummy floors and black 

88 



FLOOR TREATMENT AND CARE 



corners. Use a vacuum cleaner adjusted for bare floors 
or a chemical dust mop first; then the polish mop, re- 
membering that it is intended only for what its name 
implies — polishing and not cleaning. 

Shellacked floors have a hard, brilliant, glassy, tough 
finish. It is best protected by a slight film of liquid wax. 
Once a week at most, some times only twice a month apply 
the merest suspicion of liquid wax to a cloth tied over a dry 
mop head and go over the floors. Thresholds and traffic 
areas can be treated oftener if they require it. On shel- 
lacked floors, however, do not try to rub to a polish with 
weights. Use a mop head with light even strokes and only 
until the liquid wax is evaporated to dryness. Painted 
floors should always be given a final coat of shellac or var- 
nish and they may then be handled exactly as is the 
shellacked floor. 

In rooms that have much use, the daily run with a 
vacuum cleaner is not too much whether it be rug, or car- 
pet, to be cleaned. Especially if there is a house dog it is 
imperative to do this once a day. No matter what the 
make of vacuum cleaner selected, so long as it is approved 
by Good Housekeeping Institute it may be used freely, 
without damage to the carpets. The cleaner the carpet, 
the less wear and tear, for sharp grit is cut into the 
fabrics by the heels of the family footgear. In rooms that 
have not excessive use, the daily run with a carpet sweeper, 
and a weekly run with a vacuum cleaner is a better division 

89 



BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



of labor. Let your own conditions govern the use of these 
two invaluable tools. 

The daily care of waxed floors is extremely simple. Use 
a very small amount of softened paste wax and the waxing 
machine once in two weeks. You can feel quite free to 
apply it on any section of the floor that dulls and seems 
to show need for special care. On the other hand you can 
use one of the liquid preparations which contains a cleans- 
ing medium and cleans and polishes the floor at one and 
the same time. If you choose one of these liquid wax prep- 
arations consistently, it is doubtful if you will ever have 
to apply paste wax to the floor again. In the four years 
of constant use in my home no second paste wax treatment 
has been needed. An ink stain on a waxed floor can be 
removed with steel wool and the wax finish renewed on 
the scoured area. 

Be sure to apply liquid wax by dipping a cloth covered 
floor mop into the wax itself. Apply with light even strokes 
until the entire floor has been covered and the wax has 
evaporated to dryness. Polish with one of the weighted 
brushes, if you want the floor to have a high sheen. I 
never use a polishing stroke on stair treads, or what I would 
call danger spots, as thresholds, and "main traveled" 
routes to other rooms. The high polish as a border finish 
around a single large rug is beautiful, but in a room with 
a number of small light rugs, it is most inadvisable. 

90 



FLOOR TREATMENT AND CARE 



It is just as important to have the floors clean before the 
liquid wax is applied, as before the oil polish. An excellent 
way to accomplish it is to use the vacuum cleaner with 
the bare-floor adjustment. 

The over-conscientious housewife as well as many a house- 
keeper who learned her house care by older fashioned 
methods, sometimes makes the grave mistake of washing 
floors with soap or soap powder and water. 

I think it is not too much to say that with the present day 
help that the manufacturers of formulas for floor care 
offers the housekeeper, no soap and water care is needed, 
provided she uses these chemical cleaning methods prop- 
erly. Water is injurious to wood, because it dries it out, 
taking from it its natural oils and finish, leaving it in a 
condition ready to splinter. 

Has it ever occurred to you to wonder why the floors 
constructed within the last few years do not show the 
tendency to splinter, that older fashioned homes used to 
do? The housekeeper then believed that only the "hard" 
wood floor could escape this tendency, but today soft 
woods are given the same floor finish and the same floor 
care with equally good results. No, the answer must be 
that today we are protecting the wood against drying out 
by restoring to it the oils and waxes and finish that it re- 
quires to keep it alive. 

Don't scrub floors, then, unless you require it for a real 
germ killing purpose. If you buy a house, or rent a house 

91 



BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



that someone else has lived in, by all means have the floors 
washed once with strong disinfecting materials, but just 
so soon as they are dry restore to them the oils or wax you 
have removed. In just to the extent that you replace the 
old fashioned water treatment with this newer chemistry 
cleaning of floors, in just that proportion will your floor 
remain alive and a thing of beauty. 

There are two special floors that need special mention. 
Tiling in the bathroom calls for a friction cleanser in pow- 
dered or cake form with brush and water. But here again 
use only enough to make the cleanser operate as a paste. 
Remember that the more water you put on the floor the 
more you will have to take up. 

Use no strong solution or chemical unadvisedly, since the 
surface of the tile may become so roughened as to be more 
difficult to keep clean. The tile men themselves use muri- 
atic acid to clean off the excessive cement. They carefully 
protect their hands and perform the whole job with preci- 
sion, so that if such drastic cleaning is required, it is ad- 
visable to have these professionals do it. However, the 
occasional stain around the toilet seats may be removed by 
using a very weak solution of this same acid. So soon as 
the stain is removed, scrub the spot with water to which 
ammonia has been added. 

More and more the kitchen, the porch floor, certain halls, 
the nursery, and service rooms generally are being covered 

92 



FLOOR TREATMENT AND CARE 



with linoleum. Since the discovery that cementing the 
linoleum to the floor made a floor of permanent sanitation 
and comfort, this product has become dignified into far 
wider application. But its beauty and satisfaction as a 
floor depend very largely upon its laying and care. 

Kitchen linoleum should be cared for by wiping up any 
spot of soil as soon as possible. For the inlaid linoleum 
wax is an effective finish both from the point of cost of 
upkeep and that of utility and beauty of appearance. 
The first waxing is identical with that as outlined for the 
wood floors and the after care is best accomplished by 
occasional washing when it is really needed, followed im- 
mediately by a fresh application of wax, using either the 
softened wax in the machine or the liquid wax as described. 

Apply the liquid wax consistently once a week. Actual 
washing may often be put off for a period of a month, but 
let your own conditions govern this. In every case follow 
every washing with the wax application. With such treat- 
ment the linoleum remains soft and pliable, impervious to 
soil because its pores are so filled with wax that they repel 
the particles of dirt which otherwise could be ground in. 

For the printed linoleum varnish is a good protective 
coating, but care should be taken in renewing it before it 
wears off at those points where the tread is greatest. 

93 



BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



HOUSEHOLD FURNISHINGS SCRAP-BOOK 

Every person who is contemplating furnishing a new home 
has to have some sort of list, before she begins to buy the 
furnishings necessary. As the prices and qualities of furni- 
ture, rugs, kitchenware, and linens are numerous, the task 
is not so easy as it would seem. So I have found an im- 
provised scrap-book of household furnishings of great 
assistance. I cut out advertisements from newspapers and 
magazines — especially sale advertisements showing the 
regular price and the sale price. I grouped my advertise- 
ments into living-room furniture, bedroom furniture, dining 
room furniture, kitchen furniture, rugs, linens, silver, glass- 
ware and china, kitchenwa*<\ bathroom and laundry furni- 
ture, electric appliances, and the inevitable miscellaneous, 
and then could compare prices and compute values. This 
book was meant merely for my own information and con- 
venience, but my mother and several neighbors found occa- 
sion to make use of it, so I am persuaded it may have inter- 
est for others as welL — Good Housekeeping Discovery. 



94 



CHAPTER IV 



Furniture Cleaning 
and Polishing 

IT is routine care to wipe over the woodwork of furniture 
with a soft polishing cloth, then occasionally rub it down 
with a small amount of furniture polish, but wood finishes 
sometimes require more than that. Occasionally cleaning 
is necessary before the polish is applied. Therefore, as 
soon as you find that the usual rubbing with furniture 
polish does not give a clean, bright finish, try washing 
with pure soap ajid water. Into a gallon of warm water 
shave one-half cake or 3% oz. of castile soap, then add one 
ounce of any bland oil such as corn, olive, cottonseed, etc. 
"When the soap has entirely dissolved, pour into jars and 
label. 

The solution was made up in Good Housekeeping Institute 
and tested carefully upon all kinds of fine furniture. It 
was also used upon hard-varnished finishes found on old- 
fashioned furniture, upon rubbed enamel, and painted fur- 
niture as well as reed and rattan. It washes them clean 
without harm to finish. It leaves a soft luster, but it in 
no sense takes the place of the usual furniture polish. The 

95 



BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



new rubbed-down and waxed finish of mahogany aud 
walnut, however, will need no further polish after their 
soft luster is restored. 

But possibly all of you do not know just how to apply 
furniture polish to get the best results. The secret lies in 
the following method : Pour into a glass jar two tablespoon- 
f uls of any one of the furniture polishes that you like best 
to use, but pour it immediately out again. In the empty 
jar place a square of velveteen or chamois or even Italian 
silk, although the two former give better results. Cheese- 
cloth does not absorb quite so uniformly. Leave the cloth 
in the empty jar for a day or two before you attempt to 
use it. It is surprising how the polish penetrates the 
fabric — in small amounts, to be sure, but uniformly and 
in sufficient quantity to polish without leaving any traces 
of the polish itself. And that, after all, is what we wish 
in furniture cleaning. Until the wood needs actual wash- 
ing, use this cloth, then, for the routine dusting. It will 
dust and polish at the same time. It is adaptable for use 
on the piano or on any other highly finished wood as well 
as the whole gamut of veneer finishes. 

White spots and "fog" are often a bug-bear. These spots 
are especially apt to come after a vase of flowers or a glass 
has been standing on the side-table. The so-called "fog" 
or whitish bloom found on furniture is a less acute symp- 
tom of exactly the same disease, and both are caused by 
a reaction between water and the varnish in the furniture 

96 



FURNITURE CLEANING AND POLISHING 

finish. With a table top treated solely with either oil or 
wax in the now popular rubbed-down finish, these water 
spots cannot occur. They are especially common in the so- 
called "gift" furniture of mahogany that is too often 
carelessly finished. The remedy is simple. Wipe over with 
a cloth wrung as dry as possible from weak ammonia 
water ; then polish with whatever furniture polish you use. 
The ammonia in the water simply restores the color, and 
the polish is needed to restore the finish. 

Wicker and reed furniture present a problem in them- 
selves. A stiff brush and the cleaning solution whose 
formula I have given constitute the best treatment. Either 
paint, stain, or varnish can be used to restore color. If 
you wish a light stain, thin either the oak or walnut, and 
you will get the protection the varnish affords to the wicker, 
with the new look which many housekeepers enjoy in wicker 
furniture. 

The painted furniture in both rubbed enamel and plain 
finishes responds perfectly to the cleaning solution. A 
very small amount of furniture polish may be used after- 
ward if desired. It possibly lessens the tendency for an 
oily film of soft coal dust to stick on the wood finish. Be 
sure that you do not use too much, however. 

Papered walls are impractical to attempt to clean beyond 
wiping them over with a dry soft wool cloth or mop. But 
an occasional defacing grease spot can be treated with 
one of the commercial wall paper cleaners. 

97 



BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



Woodwork and wall surfaoes also act as catch-alls for the 
pest of soil. Both woodwork and wall surfaces, provided 
the latter are painted, can be truly restored to cleanliness 
by washing, but there is a right and wrong way to do this, 
and success depends upon using the right way. 

Whatever the surface to be treated, whether wall or wood, 
the method of actual washing is identical. Success depends 
upon using the smallest possible amount of water. Wring 
the cloth as dry as possible. Place your left hand at one 
end of the cloth, your right hand at the other, palms up. 
Use the left hand as the wringing lever, and the cloth can 
be wrung to wringer dryness. Use friction soap; any va- 
riety will prove satisfactory. When a small amount of 
friction powder is applied to the cloth, use an up-and- 
down and never a circular motion. Clean only a small 
section at a time and dry immediately with a clean dry 
cloth. This method is proof against streaks. 

PUTTING AWAY SCREENS 

Very soon we shall all be storing away the window screens 
until next summer. Perhaps every housewife does not 
know that it is possible to buy at a hardware store duplicate 
sets of numbers on brass tack-heads. Tack one of these 
numbers on a window frame and the corresponding number 
on the screen belonging to the window. Then there will 
be no trouble next spring in fitting the screens, as you will 
know instantly where each one belongs. 

— Good Housekeeping Discovery. 
98 



FURNITURE CLEANING AND POLISHING 

TO RENEW WHITE WINDOW SHADES 

While having my bathroom enameled, I remarked to the 
painter that I should be most happy to discover some way 
of making the white window shades fresh and clean again, 
as they had become soiled from long use. Immediately he 
came to my rescue, removed the shades, took them out 
into the garage, and hung them against the wall. Then 
he gave the shades a coat of flat white paint, and when 
they were dry, he put green paint on the other side, and 
now the shades look like new. 

— Good Housekeeping Discovery. 

TO KEEP THE HANDS WHITE 

Although I know that constant use of lemon juice on my 
hands after peeling vegetables will keep them clean and 
white, I never seem to have the lemons handy. So I have 
bought a liquid soap container, and fastened it above my 
sink, and keep some lemon juice in it all the time. It is 
always easy to tip it and get a few drops every time I 
wash my hands while cooking. Of course, the use of cold- 
cream or some lotion is necessary after washing, to keep 
the hands soft. — Good Housekeeping Discovery. 



99 



CHAPTER V 



Closet and 
Storeroom Care 

TIMES have changed. Before the comparatively recent 
days of perfected househeating every housekeeper had 
a cold storeroom at least for winter use : there hung in or- 
derly rows or packed away in newspapers and moth repel- 
lents she felt reasonably safe so far as furs, extra blankets, 
winter woolens, etc., were concerned. 

But today it is not possible even in winter to forget the 
moth and the deadly Buffalo bug. They are no longer a 
seasonal pest. They are an all the year round duty. 

Unquestionably the commercial cold storage represents 
safety to valuable garments and a minimum expense. Even 
if you have to ship them some distance for this storage it 
will repay you during the summer months, but much of 
the damage I find is done in those between season months 
when one hardly dares to be without the warmth that may 
be needed but once or even not at all. In spring and in 

100 



CLOSET AND STOREROOM CARE 

fall perhaps the maximum of effort is needed on the part 
of the housekeeper to protect her possessions. 

Closet care, both routine and occasional, becomes a real 
issue. Fortunately architects are building more closets and 
more specialized closets into our homes. They are endeav- 
oring to make it as easy as possible for us to control the 
moth pest. For instance, the linen closet is no longer a 
novelty, but even if you are without one its convenience 
and real economy can be enjoyed at small expense, if you 
will build a set of more or less shallow shelves depending 
on the space at your command. Use any convenient wall. 
Then enclose them with doors. Oftentimes a second bath- 
room door can be blocked up and thus used. Look around 
you and see if your home does not afford the necessary wall 
space and twenty-inch depth for the shelves. 

Make the upper shelf the blanket shelf, and therefore line 
it throughout — ceiling, walls and shelf floor — with heavy 
sheets of any so-called "moth proofed" paper. As a fur- 
ther precaution one of the liquid insecticides should be 
sprayed thoroughly into the blankets and wool puffs to be 
stored on the shelf. Use this treatment twice a year at 
least or oftener if a flying moth gives warning of trouble. 
Blanket care in summer is more of a question. They may 
be cleaned either by washing or dry cleaning and stored 
in cedar chests or trunks. On the other hand if they 
can be kept thoroughly sprayed they should be safe at home 
even on their usual shelves. 

101 



BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



Every individual in a family should have his or her own 
closet where they should be held responsible for the simple 
routine care of hanging up garments and the orderly ar- 
rangement of shoes, hats and smaller traveling gear. 
Shoes need a word of mention because they are often the 
cause of an untidy appearance. As a matter of fact prop- 
erly cared for shoes last so much longer and look so much 
trimmer that it is not only good housekeeping but good 
thrift to properly care for them. Occasionally one finds 
a closet properly equipped with a shoe carrier but if you do 
not have one, any carpenter at comparatively small cost 
can build you a set of sloping shelves. Kept on these 
shelves with shoe trees in each pair one can expect the 
longest possible period of service. 

There is no better arrangement either for men's or women's 
garments than the pole suspended from the walls of the 
closet, from which almost a limitless number of garment 
hangers may be hung. Be careful that this pole is changed 
in height in the children's closets so that it becomes easy 
for them to learn the tidy habit of hanging up their own 
garments. Even a closet that is too shallow for the ordi- 
nary coat hanger can be so utilized if you will purchase 
children's smaller hangers or chop off the larger ones at 
each end to the necessary width. A coat hanger does not 
have to reach so far into the shoulders of the garment, for 
instance, in order to hang properly. Be sure to sandpaper 

102 



CLOSET AND STOREROOM CARE 

carefully and then wind with a rough but not wool fabric 
as corduroy. 

Men's clothes are far more difficult to care for and protect 
than the average woman's. Possibly because they are al- 
most, if not quite, all wool, and also because an occasional 
grease spot often missed in cleaning offers the most attrac- 
tive of meals to our enemy, the moth. Perhaps other house- 
keepers can get along without all of my precautions, but 
they have proved real protection so I pass them on. First, 
every closet holding garments has its lining of cedarized 
paper. Second, every closet has its monthly cleaning and 
the garments are sprayed with a good insecticide. And 
finally every closet is equipped with the commercial moth 
proof bags into which seasonal clothes may be placed after 
being cleaned. For the convenience of the user they are 
not removed to another closet. Since using this method 
I have not even had the tiniest moth hole appearing in any 
garment. 

And that brings us to the question of storage. What shall 
we keep, what is wise thrift to give away or otherwise dis- 
pose of? It used to be thrift to maintain "piece bags." To- 
day they must be moth proof or not at all. It used to be 
thrift to store a garment with little possibility of another 
use. It was "too good to throw away. r? Today all that is 
changed. Every garment, every blanket, every puff that 
is not worth the cost or the effort or both of thorough 

103 



BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



cleaning is not worth storing. It will prove too costly in 
its damage to other garments to pay. 

Today with a washing machine installed in a laundry it 
is a simple matter to wash woolen blankets and wool puffs. 
There need be no special cleaner 's bills for these. And by 
the way it is in the occasional curtain and blanket washing 
that most women have an added feeling of thankfulness 
for that washing machine installed in their laundry. 

In preparing suits and overcoats, either send them to the 
tailor for his cleaning and pressing or you may do the 
work at home. Choose the cool laundry to work in and 
an ironing board with an old cover, because it will be 
stained and useless after this task. For cleaning use one 
of the non-inflammable cleaning fluids or naphtha, ben- 
zine, or a good grade of gasoline made non-inflammable. 
Ask your druggist to add enough carbon tetrachloride to 
make these otherwise dangerous cleaning fluids safe. And 
by the way both the gasoline and tetrachloride are strong 
moth repellents. 

Connect the vacuum cleaner and with the hand tool go over 
each garment; pay special attention to fur collars and 
spots of soil. Then dip a brush into the fluid and brush 
the entire garment with strong even strokes. Again pay 
especial attention to all spots and to the seams of the gar- 
ment. And as soon as each garment is completed place it 
in its protecting bag before the fumes have had an oppor- 
tunity to dissipate. 

104 



CLOSET AND STOREROOM CARE 

Finally, just a word about the home that is really infested 
with moths. It was my unhappy experience to purchase a 
home in which this pest was appallingly present. I could 
protect the individual garment and the individual blanket 
but moths were still flying around the house and moths w r ere 
still breeding in the walls. All this, in spite of the fact 
that every inch of the house was given three or more coats 
of paint before we even moved in. 

It was not until the commercial exterminator was called in 
with his gas treatment that the house was entirely rid of 
the pest, and I believe it to be a good procedure, when 
going into a home that has been occupied by other people, 
to have this fumigating process done, irrespective of the 
painting and redecorating that may be planned for. It 
is a task that must be done by skilled workers but it does 
not require an undue time. While they ask for only four 
hours before it is safe and comfortable to use the house, 
it is wiser, I believe, to spend one night out of the house 
unless the task is done in the winter months when it is much 
easier to obtain fresh currents of air through the rooms. 



105 



CHAPTER VI 



Cellar Care 
and Cleanliness 

NEARLY every housekeeper has asked herself the ques- 
tion: "How much care should a good housekeeper ac- 
cord the cellar ?" Is it a daily, a weekly, a monthly or a 
semi-annual affair, this of cellar cleaning. According to the 
primer of housework, the modern self-respecting cellar calls 
for a casual weekly attention, to be sure, but it is the semi- 
annual cleaning after all that keeps it sweet and clean and 
healthful. 

The weekly care calls only for a general tidying. Dispose 
of newspapers and magazines that may have accumulated. 
I have two capacious baskets. Both newspapers and maga- 
zines are placed flat in their respective baskets when they 
are no longer required above stairs. No second handling 
is required when they are taken away to their final destina- 
tion of hospital, Salvation Army headquarters, or junk man. 

Dispose promptly of broken articles consigned to the cellar 
because they are out of sight. Eeclaim them at once if there 

106 



CELLAR CARE AND CLEANLINESS 

is a possibility of repair. But chop up or burn up ruth- 
lessly if there is no hope of rescue. Most cellars are untidy 
rather than unclean and solely because the cellar is used, 
as the attic, for broken or discarded furnishings. 

See that the fire wood for the grate is an orderly pile. 
Use a bin for the kindling wood for all fires. You can easily 
build it with one or two three to four foot high partitions. 
Oftener, only one will be needed for the wall of the coal 
bin can be used for the other. In the fall, the ash cans 
must be given an appraising glance. Small ones and many 
of them are best, for then they are not too great a task of 
strength in handling. If father or son does the work, a 
two wheeled ash can truck will prove as useful a tool as 
mother's vacuum cleaner is upstairs. 

In most cellars, there is a tool room sacred to the masculine 
members of the family. I would leave this untidy. 

But the storeroom deserves a w 7 ord. Many housekeepers 
are finding it impossible to keep food supplies purchased 
in large quantities from molestation by mice or rats. The 
best solution I have found is a series of swing shelves sus- 
pended from each other and from the ceiling, and preferably 
in the center of the room. Be sure you leave not a scrap 
of food within reach and even in a waterfront city, they 
may leave for less hungry quarters. Of course, canned 
goods, in tin, can be stored with impunity on wall shelves, 
but glass jars must go on the swing shelves with the rest 
of the supplies, because the hungry rat can break them. 

107 



BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



During both the fall and winter months, the cellar floor 
is flushed with water which is swept down the center drain 
with a strong, plain, old-fashioned broom, a tool that cannot 
be dispensed with in a housekeeper's regime. This keeps 
down the ash dust and freshens the whole house. In sum- 
mer I find no necessity for this washing. But in both win- 
ter and summer, the cellar stairs must be washed each week. 
Now it happens that that particular task is the most diffi- 
cult to parcel out in a two-maid household. Therefore, 
I always list it in the work very plainly before engaging a 
servant and thereby save a disagreeable interview later. 

The semi-annual care of the cellar is a spring or fall affair. 
Oftentimes, the work can be accomplished just as well once 
a year. It all depends upon the amount of traffic the cellar 
has to bear. But either in the spring or the fall, a coat 
of whitewash should be applied to both cellar and furnace. 
If in the spring, be sure that it is late enough for no 
further emergency fires. 

First of all, have the furnace cleaned of its clogging soot, 
the pipes taken down, given a coat of asphalt paint and 
stored away in paper for use in the fall. If it has not been 
done, it is a wise move to cover the heater with thick layers 
of an asbestos composition, in the form especially prepared 
for this furnace use. Then treat it like the rest of the 
cellar with a coat of whitewash, using the asphalt paint to 
give the metal trim a glossy coat of black. In this particu- 
lar cellar, the furnace man "arm" installed at the side of 

108 



CELLAR CARE AND CLEANLINESS 

the furnace proved so real a convenience that I pass it on. 
Upon it, within convenient reach, are hung the tools needed 
for the task of furnace care. 

Just a word in regard to the whitewashing. ( carry my 
taste for color right down into the cellar and add enough 
tinted cold water paint to the whitewash so that I have 
old ivory on the walls and coal and wood bin partition. It 
is no more expensive and I do assure you that it is far more 
sightly than the glaring white. 

By the way, if the coal bins are to be filled with coal some 
time during the summer, you may prefer to delay the 
whitewashing until the early fall after the winter supply 
is stored. This is exactly as satisfactory a procedure, pro- 
vided there is no tendency to dampness in the cellar. In- 
deed there may be localities where the coat of whitewash 
will be needed both spring and fall. It has a tendency to 
absorb moisture and keep the cellar dry and therefore is a 
matter of health quite as much as cleanliness to attend to it. 

Finally, not a word has been said in this book as to who 
should take care of the cellar, but the logical shoulders to 
assume the task are those of the son of the house. By all 
means, let the boys have a sense of responsibility for the 
cleanliness and tidiness of this part of the house. 



109 



CHAPTER VII 



Spring Renovating 

THERE is not a housekeeper but welcomes the first signs 
that the time has, at last, come to open the house and 
to make ready for the months of outdoor housekeeping. 
The time to do this must vary in this wide country of ours, 
but the tasks themselves remain fairly constant. 

With the first breath of mildness, then, take off the storm 
windows and doors if you have them. Go over them care- 
fully for lights that need replacing or reputtying, and for 
the repainting that secures longer life. Store them away 
safely and carefully. Be sure that each one is tagged with 
its window number. These numbers in duplicate come 
now in thumb tack form and can be easily applied. Time 
and patience are saved by this practice, when they are 
installed in the fall. The house equipped with weather- 
stripping will, of course, not require this task. But in 
both cases screens should be installed early before there can 
be even a suggestion of a fly. The house that installs 
screens early and takes them down late is the flyless house 
in real fly time. And just a word about screens. If you 
must replace, this year, by all means do it by screening the 

110 



SPRING RENOVATING 



entire window. Once tried, I am sure you will never go 
back to the half screen window that used to satisfy us. 

Lawn furniture, if of iron, may need a furbishing up. 
Wash the furniture first and follow with a liquid wax 
polish, rubbing to restore the jet black appearance. Even 
repainting is not a difficult job because it can be done on 
the first glorious out of door days when any task that takes 
us outside is a welcome one. Use jet black paint with the 
dull finish. Even if the chairs are of wood, try this same 
jet black treatment. I believe you will like it better than 
either the green or natural wood that is so commonly used. 

Porch furniture, if of reed or wicker or rattan, can be 
safely scrubbed if it really needs it. Finish by rubbing 
with furniture polish if you wish to retain the natural 
color. The furniture polish treatment should be given 
alone, if the furniture does not require scrubbing. Willow 
furniture is more difficult to clean. It never looks "as good 
as new" after washing, so it is much better to stain or paint 
it. An excellent two toned effect is not difficult to obtain 
even by unskilled home painting. Choose any desired col- 
ors: orange, green or red with black; or "tipcart" blue 
with light oak varnish make excellent combinations. First 
paint the entire chair with the brilliant color, and before 
it dries at all wipe off with a cloth as much of the color as 
you can, leaving it only in crevices, etc. Let it dry thor- 
oughly and then apply the top coat, using the second and 
more neutral color and painting lightly to touch only the 

111 



BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



wiped over unpainted surface. If a light stain or varnish 
is used for this second coat not so much care is needed in 
the final painting. Re-cover the cushions to blend with 
your new color scheme and you will have new furniture for 
summer use. 

If the porch floors are of wood and you use them as rooms 
by all means cover with linoleum cemented down, and 
waxed. It will save you untold work. Choose the large 
tile patterns; red pointed with black; gray pointed with 
red, or the black and white block pattern. All of these 
are excellent for porch use. But if the porch floors are 
cement here is a brand new treatment that will make them 
as smooth as tile and as easily cared for. If the cement is 
of the usual grayish pink tint, no color need be used. 
Simply shellac; where there is much wear three coats are 
none too many. If the cement is plain gray and you wish 
a color use cement paint, tile red or any other color you 
choose, instead of the shellac. In either case finish with 
paste wax applied warm, and thinned with only enough 
turpentine to allow it to be handled. Be *sure that you do 
not make the paste too thin. This waxing deepens the 
original pinkish color to a tile red. The after care of the 
floor consists only in dust mopping and a weekly polish with 
a little liquid wax or paste wax applied with a polisher. 
The floor requires no scrubbing. 

Bugs and carpets are always a spring consideration. The 
past years have been especially hard on both rugs and 

112 



SPRING RENOVATING 



hangings because of the soft coals commonly used for fuel. 
Unquestionably many housekeepers may have to resort to 
more drastic methods than usual. But today rugs, even 
Oriental rugs, can be washed and cleaned safely, but it 
should be done by skilled hands. Most cities and some 
towns have carpet renovators, and even if the rugs must 
be shipped for some distance it is wise to use these expert 
rug cleaners. The cost is not prohibitive especially if you 
store the rugs during the summer months. If it is im- 
possible to take advantage of professional work you can 
try washing them at home. Use only the best of neutral 
soaps and a new scrubbing brush that is not too coarse. 
Lay the rug on the floor, use a garden cushion to protect 
the knees and scrub a small area at a time. Rinse and 
wipe dry. Do not use a circular scrubbing motion. The 
greatest difficulty lies in producing perfectly even cleansing. 
But with care excellent results are possible. 

I know of no better way to make a house more comfortable 
in summer and at the same time lessen housework than to 
pack away the winter hangings and cover overstuffed fur- 
niture with washable covers. If you will at the same time 
pack away all but the very necessary silver together with 
the brasses and bric-a-brac you will make the rooms look 
bigger and cooler and more restful, and at the same time 
simplify your own care. Even so simple a thing as the 
use of glass candlesticks instead of those that require 
polishing, as silver or mahogany, has an influence in light- 

113 



BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



ening summer work. And when fall comes you will enjoy 
them all the more upon their reappearance. 

Next comes the task of packing- away winter garments, 
blankets and wools generally. Don't forget to leave out 
enough wool covers to serve all the beds for that occasional 
cool night we always have in summer. I find that the 
wool filled puff or comfort proves the best selection because 
its cotton or silk cover does not look so warm as even a 
light wool blanket and the beds can still have their appear- 
ance of summer dress and ready comfort. Wool underwear 
cleaned and repaired can be stored in cedar chests or 
wrapped in mothproof paper or bag in closet or dresser. 
Blankets also if newly cleaned can be similarly stored. But 
unwashable garments, especially men's suits, should be 
cleaned first and thoroughly, because moths first attack 
spots of soil. The cleaning may be done at home or by a 
professional. Directions were given for this cleaning on 
page 104. Then immediately pack them or have them 
packed with a generous quantity of any of the pungent 
moth preventives, camphor, naphthaline, moth balls, etc. 
Use either boxes or the mothproof bags. Remember that 
the task of storing clothes against the ravages of moths, 
etc., is much more difficult in the spring than in the fall. 
Even though our superheated houses have made the moth 
an all year round pest it nevertheless is far more danger- 
ous in summer. 

114 



SPRING RENOVATING 



On this account it is excellent routine in this spring season 
to use a good insecticide and sprayer all over the house, 
in closets and servants' quarters especially. Make its use 
a part of the "spring cleaning" given each year. 

At this time it is just as well to look over the awnings. 
There are two things to note about the newer awnings. 
First, is their simplicity for they no longer need be made 
with sides that shut out the breeze. Instead they consist 
of a single piece of awning duck without any sides and 
supported on the usual awning frame. The second point 
of interest lies in the material, for a very heavy canvas 
duck is now used painted green on top and pure white be- 
neath. It is the most expensive awning fabric but repays 
its first cost in durability, for it can be renewed each year 
with a fresh coat of paint that protects the fabric as well 
as improves the appearance. The awnings never look 
faded, never look old. But provided the awning material 
is heavy enough to hold the paint there can be no objection 
to painting any faded but still strong awning fabric. Don't 
try it, however, on awnings with side pieces, and if you 
do try it, wait until the awnings can be hung so that the 
drying can be accomplished as they are stretched taut. 



115 



CHAPTER VIII 



Seasonal House-Cleaning 

EVEN though the newer housekeeping is founded on the 
principle of keeping clean rather than making clean 
nevertheless there is a freshness of atmosphere and a real 
cheer about the newly cleaned room that makes most of us 
housekeepers hesitate to discard the old system of house- 
cleaning even though it entails an occasional upheaval of 
the household routine. 

In the following outline the work is spread over a period 
of two weeks allowing a Wednesday of each week for the 
day of recreation. The time may be lengthened to suit a 
larger house. The scheme so plans the work on the other 
days that the cleaning need not occupy the entire day. 

Monday: clean attic. Monday: clean balance of up- 
stairs rooms. 

Tuesday: clean linen and Tuesday: clean half down- 
clothes closets, bureau and chif- stairs rooms, 
foniers. 

Thursday: clean downstairs Thursday: clean balance of 

clothes closet, linen closet, and downstairs rooms, 
china closet, with silver and 
china. 

Friday: clean half the up- Friday: clean kitchen, 
stairs rooms. 

Saturday: clean bathroom. Saturday: clean cellar. 

116 



SEASONAL HOUSE-CLEANING 



The attic is the logical place to start. Because many of 
us have a tendency to store here clothes that are not good 
enough to wear but are too good to throw away ; it is in- 
deed wise to look these over and get rid of everything for 
which you have no immediate use. Reserve only those 
w T hich you feel are of sufficient value to warrant an outlay 
for cleaning. Have them cleaned and pack them away as 
carefully as your newer clothes, in mothproof chests. As 
the attic will be dusty, rather than actually dirty, go over 
the floor with a vaouum cleaner, then wipe it with a small 
amount of water, and plenty of disinfectant. All closets 
used for storerooms are the next logical step. Each 
drawer in closet, dresser, or chiffonier should be taken out 
and rapped sharply on the bottom with a small hammer 
since these are the places w r here tiny insect eggs lodge to 
hatch out in warm weather. Each drawer should be thor- 
oughly sprayed with a moth preventive, after washing out 
with warm water to which household ammonia and any 
good disinfectant has been added. When dry renew with 
clean fresh lining" paper. Don't forget to empty completely 
and actually clean each closet and storeroom. See that the 
walls are brushed down, the tops of ledges washed and the 
shelves taken out if removable. One tiny insect egg left 
under a loose shelf may cause much damage and work. 
Moth damage can be prevented if after washing the shelves 
a moth preventive is used in one of the efficient spraying 
machines. But spray thoroughly ! 

117 



BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



With bureau drawers and store closets finished, begin with 
bookcases, writing desk, sewing machine drawers, medicine 
cabinets, blacking cases and utility boxes. 

Books and bookcases are neither easy nor pleasant to clean 
for the books must all be removed and they are heavy to 
handle. It ranks with the china closet as one of the most 
trying of housecleaning tasks. Remove all the books to a 
porch, open each one in several places and beat lightly with 
a small bamboo beater or a brand new velvet edged fly 
swatter. With a clean cloth, dust the edges and wipe the 
books before replacing in the cleaned bookcase. 

In cleaning the china closet all dishes should be removed, 
washed and dried. The cut glasses should be washed in 
hot soapy water and rinsed in clear water to which am- 
monia has been added. Dry on soft linen and polish with 
a piece of paper. 

Room cleaning has a procedure all its own. First take 
down all curtains and portieres. Wash, dust and remove 
ornaments, books, pictures, etc. Next clean the rug or 
carpet with a vacuum cleaner. Place the portieres on the 
clean rug and run the vacuum cleaner over them until 
they are clean. Roll up the portieres as soon as clean and 
hang outdoors to air thoroughly. Give the rugs a final 
cleaning and roll them up. If a bedroom, mattresses may 
be put directly on the floor and the vacuum cleaner used 
on them or the cleaning tool may be used, paying especial 
attention to all tufting. Overstuffed furniture is best 

118 



SEASONAL HOUSE-CLEANING 



cleaned with the attachment. Wipe down the walls with a 
clean wool mop covered with cheesecloth. Use a brush on 
the radiators and a dust mop on all woodwork. Brush up 
the dust on the floor with a soft floor brush or use the 
vacuum cleaner and finish with a wax or oil mop. Wood 
trim if painted should be cleaned with a damp cloth and 
friction powder. If of mahogany or any stained wood finish 
clean and polish only with furniture polish — being very 
careful to rub until perfectly dry. Next polish the furni- 
ture and replace carpets and portieres unless they are to be 
stored for the summer. 

It is possible that the vacuum cleaning of rug or carpet 
may not be sufficiently drastic treatment. The past season 
especially has been hard on rugs and hangings because of 
the soft coal so widely used for fuel. Today rugs, even 
Oriental ones, can be washed and cleaned safely. But it 
should be done by skilled hands. Most cities and some 
towns have carpet renovating firms and even if the rugs 
must be shipped for some distance it is wise to use these 
expert rug cleaners for expensive rugs. 



119 



CHAPTER IX 



Safe Procedure 
in Closing a House 

/""\ CCASIONALLY emergency makes it necessary to has- 
^-^ tily turn the key in the lock and leave a house with all 
save the actual necessities left undone, but the routine of 
leaving a home for a summer or winter stay allows of every- 
thing to be accomplished that is at all necessary, provided 
the housekeeper has planned and wisely made a list to be 
checked off as accomplished. 

Procedure for the two seasons has only one variation. If 
the house is to be left in winter the water must be removed 
from the system, every pipe should be drained and the 
heating system of hot water or even steam should also be 
completely drained and the traps treated with glycerine. 

While in summer there is a bit more worry from the ques- 
tion of moths, nevertheless in either season moth prevention 
is a real problem for moths thrive vigorously under such 
conditions of undisturbed quiet. 

120 



SAFE PROCEDURE IN CLOSING A HOUSE 

It is wise, therefore, to send out of the house any fur coats 
and any fur pieces, to be stored by a reliable furrier in 
cold storage. Outer garments of wool should be vacuum 
cleaned and packed away in mothproof bags and cedar 
chests. Blankets should be washed or vacuum cleaned and 
hung in the open air before wrapping in mothproof paper. 
Frankly, the secret of adequate storage as a protection 
against moths cannot too often be repeated : garments must 
be absolutely clean for this will mean they are free of 
moth eggs. Second, the storage place must also be free of 
all traces of moths, and finally the storage place must be 
so sealed that moths will not be able to enter. It is an ad- 
vantage, of course, to have these storage places so treated 
with sufficient repellant material distasteful to the flying 
moth as to prevent to some extent their entering. 

As a protection against fading and dust, clean and store 
window draperies, portieres and other hangings. Wash- 
able curtains should be laundered but put away uniron2d. 
Clean sofa cushions and wrap them in paper and store 
them in chests. 

Silk lamp shades should be brushed or cleaned with the 
vacuum cleaner tool and wrapped in tissue paper; parch- 
ment shades should be wiped off and wrapped. 

Overstuffed furniture should be thoroughly sprayed with 
a commercial moth killer and then covered with slip covers. 
Wicker furniture should be covered because it is most dif- 
ficult to clean, once it becomes dusty. Old sheets or even 

121 



BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



newspaper may be used by tying with twine or by fastening 
with surgeon's tape around arms and legs. If, however, 
the house is closed each season, it is wiser to make simp 1 ? 
inexpensive slip covers. 

Cover all lighting fixtures with newspaper for fly specks 
are practically impossible to remove. Pack away bric-a- 
brac, candelabra, etc. Take off table runners, doilies, bu- 
reau scarfs. In the bedrooms strip the beds of all cover- 
ings and cover mattresses and pillow cases with clean sheets. 
It is wise to put several layers of paper between the mat- 
tress and the spring if it is not of the box type, in order 
to protect the mattress from dampness that may cause 
the metal spring to rust. 

It goes without saying that silver, jewelry and legal papers 
should not be left in the house. Silver chests, special silver 
cases, in the form of cardboard boxes, or canton flannel 
cases should be used for storing silver. If you make the 
flannel cases yourself choose a color other than pure white, 
because the sulphur in the bleach will cause the silver to 
tarnish. Make one of these for each large piece of silver, 
while for the flat silver use straight lengths with pockets for 
individual pieces. Mark each case with its contents for ease 
in checking up on your return or in finding the desired 
articles. 

Many housekeepers forget to plan wisely with regard to 
food. Plan menus ahead of time with the idea of using 
up perishable foods. The staples such as salt, sugar and 

122 



SAFE PROCEDURE IN CLOSING A HOUSE 

flour, will keep, provided you have the right containers. 
They must be kept dry. Metal containers are best because 
they are both moisture-proof and vermin-proof. Dispose 
of every bit of food which you cannot properly store. Take 
everything out of the refrigerator and clean it thoroughly. 
Plug up the drain if it leads outdoors. Leave a refrigerator 
only in a dry place. And have all the doors swung open. 
Treat the kitchen range generously with stove oil to pre- 
vent its rusting. Use the same treatment for iron fireplace 
fittings. 

Guard Against any Possibility of Fire 

Leave no chemically prepared dusters and oil-treated mops 
and floor cloths in the house. Mice will gnaw on matches 
when there is nothing more attractive : as a safeguard store 
all matches in a tin box and label. 

Dampness in the home can do much damage so make a 
careful survey of the basement and cellar to see that noth- 
ing which might be affected by moisture is left. It may 
not be feasible to remove the washing and ironing machine 
to the first floor because of their size. Cover the metal 
parts with stove oil, then make covers for them, preferably 
from oilcloth. Before putting these covers on, be sure 
that the machines are dry and well oiled and greased. 
All unprotected metal parts should be oiled with any good 
lubricating oil. Coat the shoe of the ironing machine 
generously with wax. Release the tension of the wringer 

123 



BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



roll, and should the washing machine have a wooden 
cylinder, remove it and store it on the first floor. 

Remove the pipe from the furnace to the chimney at least 
so far as the section of the pipe connected to the chimney 
flue is concerned, for this is most susceptible to rust. Cover 
the flue opening' with one of the stops to be purchased in 
the hardware shop, or it may be filled with paper. The 
same precaution should be taken with a coal range in the 
kitchen. Fireplaces should be inspected to make sure that 
all their dampers are closed. Water and gas should be 
shut off at the main inlets, usually near the meters in the 
cellar. This overcomes any possibility of a leak. Into all 
traps should be poured a cupful of sweet oil. This will 
prevent the water evaporating and thus allowing unpleas- 
ant-smelling sewer gas to enter the house. Notify the com- 
pany to disconnect the electric current. If the house is 
to remain unoccupied for a period of months it is advisable 
to request that the main fuses be removed by the electric 
company. For a stay of a few weeks you yourself can 
remove the fuses in the individual circuits in the house. 
Bear in mind, however, that the house must be in darkness 
until the fuses are replaced and send notification of return 
to the power company in ample time. 

Locks need only a mention. See that all window and door 
locks are in perfect repair and the keys are accessible. 

In conclusion it is not wise to call attention by the out- 
side appearance of the house to the fact that every one is 

124 



SAFE PROCEDURE IN CLOSING A HOUSE 

away. Don't pull down the shades and close the blinds. 
The house which presents an inhabited rather than a de- 
serted appearance will be least conspicuous to those having 
a casual malicious intent. This does not hold good, how- 
ever, if the house is to be unoccupied for several months. 
In this case boarding the windows protects the window 
panes and keeps out much of the sunlight, thus preventing 
the fading of wall coverings. An excellent idea for the 
housekeeper who closes her house every summer is to make 
a set of inexpensive cheesecloth curtains. They lend a 
neat appearance to the exterior of the house, obscure the 
view from outdoors and tell no tales of absentee owner. 



125 



SECTION V 



In the Laundry 

Chapter I — Plan and Location 

Chapter II — Equipment, Choice and Installation 

Chapter III — Washing Formulas 

Soaps and Soap Compounds 
Softeners 
Blues and Tints 
Starches and Starching 

Chapter IV — Laundry Methods 

The Chemistry of Washing 

The Routine of the Family Wash 

The Removal of Stains 

Sprinkling and Folding 

Washing Silks and Woolens 

Fitting the Baby's Wash into the House Routine 



CHAPTER I 



Plan and Location 

A WELL equipped laundry will prove a real investment 
showing definite money return to your budget wher- 
ever the laundry work is assumed by paid workers : whether 
inside or outside the house. Its advantage to the house- 
keeper who does her own work while different in kind is 
no less obvious. 

Installment purchase of this type of household equipment 
has a special fitness. I am well aware that such pur- 
chasing has received a bad name and I agree that save 
within narrow limits it should not be resorted to by the 
thrifty. The test I believe lies in the answers to the ques- 
tions: Is it an investment returning its purchase price in 
work accomplished or is it a luxury whose first cost I 
could not possibly assume? Ask yourself the second ques- 
tion : Can I pay for this equipment out of money that in 
any case is to be spent to accomplish the work it claims to 
do ? With an affirmative answer to both of these questions, 
the sound business policy of the method becomes apparent. 
Again in this same expenditure, the washing machine, the 

129 



BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



ironing machine, and some form of quick dryer should all 
three be provided for. Three hundred to six hundred dol- 
lars will be ample to purchase and properly install all three 
machines. With any single one of them, certain gains in 
convenience, time, and quality of work are to be expected ; 
but it is when all three of them are in harmonious opera- 
tion that one obtains the maximum results. It then be- 
comes possible to dovetail ironing and washing periods, 
with no delay on stormy days waiting for the slow drying 
of the clothes. With all of them in operation a paid 
worker's time is fully utilized irrespective of weather con- 
ditions. 

If you can choose the location of your laundry you are 
indeed happy. You will never regret incorporating it on 
the ground floor adjacent to the kitchen. This can be done 
even in small houses by sacrificing enough kitchen and 
pantry space to enlarge the rear entrance hall into a ser- 
viceable laundry. Moreover, a unit system of kitchen 
cabinet with auxiliary wall cabinets is now furnished in a 
number of wood and metal constructions, and they furnish 
a far more efficient kitchen substitute for the old fashioned 
pantry. 

Unconsciously better care is taken of machinery when 
installed on this upper floor. But of even more importance, 
is the greater convenience in working if you do it yourself 
and the greater convenience in overseeing if you hire it 
done. Finally there is greater protection to both machines 

130 



PLAN AND LOCATION 



and linen, since the dust and dirt incidental to the house 
heating plant is a really big item in laundry work. 

An ideal solution when ground space permits is the tiny 
laundry building built adjacent to the drying yard and 
with the whole trellised to have a real landscape value. In 
this case the laundry stove acts as heating plant for both 
workroom and dryer. With generous windows, carefully 
selected equipment and attractive surroundings this par- 
ticular building accomplishes the entire laundry of a big 
family of adults and children, with no grumbling at the 
generous washes sent out from the house. 

Many of our older houses have large laundries and often- 
times they are dark and in the basement. But their spa- 
cious dimensions make it possible to easily install all 
three of the large pieces of laundry equipment, and with 
plenty of artificial light and a generous provision for con- 
venience outlets, such a laundry may be made into a con- 
venient and efficient room. Plan the arrangement so that 
as nearly as possible the clothes are routed soiled from 
clothes chute or laundry hampers to the sorting table, 
thence to stain removal, thence to washing, rinsing, bluing, 
starching, and drying, by progressive steps towards the 
outer door and the drying yard, or drying machine. In the 
same way they should come in, dry, and progress again 
through the several stages of sorting, mending, sprinkling, 
ironing, airing and packing into hampers toward the linen 
room and personal bureaus of the family. 

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BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



The combination kitchen and laundry is a common pro- 
vision by the architect of many small houses. It is prob- 
ably the least desirable location for laundry work, but even 
here a little care will insure good results. Wherever 
and whatever the laundry is I do want to accent the neces- 
sity for isolating the laundry work as much as possible 
from the handling of food and the utensils used in prepar- 
ing and serving it. If you wash in such a combination 
room, then, keep the laundry tools, utensils, and reagents 
in their own special place. There should be no temptation 
to borrow the vegetable kettle for the making of starch. 
Laundry spoons should be kept only for laundry use. 

Frankly I cannot but wonder at that architect who pro- 
vides the housekeeper with this combination kitchen-laundry 
and then offers her double dining facilities through a 
dining-room and an additional breakfast nook. Yes, he 
even adds a porch dining-room, oftentimes, to the house 
he deems too small for an honest laundry. 

A small kitchen cabinet or set of shelves is excellent for 
storing the laundry supplies in the kitchen. In the case 
of the kitchen cabinet the enameled metal top is ideal for 
the stain and starch work and for sprinkling the clothes. 
Store the soaps, compounds and soap jellies, water soften- 
ers, bluings, tints and soap dyes on the shelves. Clothes- 
pins and bag with the lines can be put away in the deep 
drawer. In the cabinet proper are stored the starch and 
stain kettles. 

132 



PLAN AND LOCATION 



CLOTHES-POSTS IN THE BACK YARD 

I do my own washing, and when I moved into a lovely new 
home, I dreaded to put up clothes-posts, because we had a 
very beautiful yard. Finally, I put up posts with cross- 
pieces on the order of a trellis, not too wide, and at the top 
I put a wider one of a two-by-four dimension, wide enough 
to take a line at each end without making them too close 
together. On this two-by-four trellis I put large, non- 
rustable hooks, painted the whole a dull green, and then 
put an attractive home-made bird-house on the top. I 
planted flowering beans, clematis, honeysuckle, etc., at the 
base of these posts, and they are lovely. 

— Good Housekeeping Discovery. 



133 



CHAPTER II 



Equipment, Choice 
and Installation 

THE walls of the laundry may be of a hard plaster 
with a hard washable oil paint finish in any light 
color. The yellows are excellent but grays and light greens 
are almost equally good. Another suggestion is the use of 
"cold water" paint. This can be renewed each year and 
is especially adapted to this room because it has all the 
drying, cleansing advantages of the familiar whitewash. 

If the floor is of cement by all means paint it with a special 
cement floor paint, tile red in color. It will take at least 
two coats and three are better. In painting use this same 
red paint for one foot up on the walls. A laundry floor 
must be washed and the darkened baseboards and wall space 
yield a much better appearance than the lighter wall paint 
would give. Do not try to use either floor wax or oil 
polishes on this floor, instead use a mop and an occasional 
hose treatment allowing the excess water to run down the 
open floor drain, which should be in every laundry. 

Door and window trim where one can select the ideal should 
be plain and unpaneled, but these so-called slab doors, while 
made in stock sizes, are more expensive and few of us feel 
that we can put them in this room. However, there is a real 

134 



EQUIPMENT, CHOICE AND INSTALLATION 

saving of time and care possible when they are installed, so 
they are worth consideration at least. Either a hard water- 
proof varnish treatment for the woodwork or a plain oil 
treatment on the natural wood will be found acceptable for 
the laundry. I would not advise paint, either light or dark. 

Ventilation is most important; moreover, it should be se- 
cured without placing the ironing equipment in so direct 
a draft that it will cool the ironing machine shoe. For 
this reason transoms are the ideal provision. In case these 
are impossible see that your windows are screened the 
entire surface, then open laundry windows from the 
top and you will obtain almost equally good results. 

Wiring for the laundry should take into consideration two 
things, illumination and sufficient provision for service out- 
lets. Be sure that the wiring circuits upon which these 
appliances are installed are not overloaded. If this has 
not been done you will be troubled by blown fuses and the 
washing must come to a standstill until new fuses are 
inserted. The best remedy is to be sure that the laundry 
appliances are wired on a separate circuit. Again, use 
separable plugs and never connect into a lighting fixture. 
It is especially easy with a heavy washing machine or a 
hand iron to tear out the fixture, short circuit it or both. 
Therefore, install a sufficient number of baseboard or wall 
outlets to serve your various equipment. 

For lighting there is nothing better than an overhead in- 
direct fixture of sufficient power to light the entire room. 

135 



BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



But if your laundry has the small sewing table an 
added desk lamp here, might be an advantage. 

Actual equipment of your laundry can be as simple or 
elaborate as your purse allows. The bare essentials are the 
washing machine and the ironing machine. Either one 
alone is lonesome for its twin. I also like to include some 
form of drying machine. Indeed more housekeepers would 
I feel assume the actual laundry work in their homes with 
machine equipment if they but realized that satisfactory 
drying could be accomplished in the house during incle- 
ment days. 

In addition to the older type of laundry-stove-heated 
dryers there are today a number of satisfactory compact 
gas heated machines and for localities not served by this 
fuel there is a well-made small but powerful electric cen- 
trifugal dryer that whirls the clothes ready for the ironing N 
machine in a few moments. While nothing can take the 
place of sun and air as routine practice in drying, never- 
theless one of these dryers is a distinct advantage for 
emergency use. In many localities such a dryer will find 
a use during at least six months of the year. 

Where gas is available an ironing machine is in my opinion 
as important as the washing machine Indeed it acts as 
almost more of a time saver. For instance, many house- 
keepers are able to obtain their laundry washed for a rea- 
sonable figure and with reasonably good results. Delivered 
rough dry, they can sprinkle and accomplish the ironing 

136 



EQUIPMENT, CHOICE AND INSTALLATION 

on an ironing machine at a real saving in laundry figures. 
The present model open-end ironer is capable of perform- 
ing at least three quarters of the entire ironing and at a 
saving of one-half to three-quarters of the time. I am 
quite aware that these figures are impressively high but 
they are not the result of a single housekeeper's experience; 
indeed over a hundred housekeepers reported to Good House- 
keeping Institute that this range had been their experience. 
In this connection I am also including an ironing time study 
covering the hand and machine method as used by one of 
these housekeepers. 

Ironing Time Study 
Ironed by hand with electric iron — time, 2 hours and 5 minutes. 

3 girl's fancy dresses 1 Tuxedo collar 
2 baby dresses, ruffled 2 cuffs 

1 baby bib 4 men's soft shirts 

1 woman's gingham dress 4 boy's blouses 

1 vestee 1 boy's Norfolk coat 

1 boy's trousers 

21 pieces 

Ironed by machine — time, 1 hour and 25 minutes. 

1 large bedspread 8 men's handkerchiefs 

4 large sheets 1 boy's belt (white pique) 

10 crib sheets 1 man's linen trousers (ironed to 

5 pillow cases crotch, top by hand) 

2 baby pillow cases 3 boy's khaki trousers 

4 hand towels 5 child's dresses 

5 tea towels 1 child's pinafore 

1 roller towel 2 pair panties 

2 small tablecloths 4 pair bloomers 
5 napkins 5 baby dresses 

1 round centerpiece 1 kimono baby slip 

3 round doilies 1 Gertrude petticoat 
3 linen bibs 3 kitchen aprons 

9 soft collars 8 women's handkerchiefs 

98 pieces 

137 



BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



Ironing Boards 

Possibly the ironing* board is the next consideration. Use 
a sturdy rigid one to insure steadiness. Look for this espe- 
cially in the board of the folding type. The height of 
the board is important because one that is too low makes 
the labor of ironing even harder. At the same time it has 
been my experience that many working laundresses use 
and like a lower board, probably because they have de- 
veloped stronger back muscles than the average house- 
keeper and do not mind expending real muscle strength. 
But for the woman who irons only weekly or semi-weekly 
an ironing surface thirty-four inches from the floor is a 
convenient height. For the taller woman 36 inches may 
be better. But these dimensions are suggestive only. Try 
and work out a height that is most convenient for you. 
Before covering the board pad it well with wool felt or use 
a discarded quilted silence cloth. Old blankets are ex- 
cellent, but whatever is used, be sure that there is enough 
of it to really pad to a cushiony depth. Never use a 
seamed pad. For the outside new unbleached muslin or a 
discarded sheet makes an excellent cover. It, too, should 
be free from seams and wrinkles. In putting it on, pull it 
just as taut as you can and fasten it securely, using either 
a generous number of strong safety pins, horseblanket size ; 
the especially designed pins for ironing board use; or 
strong tapes attached to the cover every four or five inches. 
Finally keep two covers and interchange their use. 

138 



EQUIPMENT, CHOICE AND INSTALLATION 

Electric Irons 

You will need one or two hand irons depending upon the 
amount of work to be done. The six pound weight is the 
best selection for general use but a smaller four pound iron 
proves an excellent auxiliary. Be sure that a wall plate 
outlet is provided so that the ironer can forget the cord. 
This plate should preferably be about one foot above the 
ironing board and set close to the edge nearest the worker. 
When set as usual, centered in the board, there is a neces- 
sity for dragging the iron cord across the ironing board, 
which my suggestion obviates. A remarkable convenience 
in electric irons is the inserted switch. It obviates the con- 
stant removal of the plug and appreciably lengthens the 
life of the iron. To take out and put in a plug often means 
an inconvenience that prevents the user doing it unless 
she is directly interested in the electric bill, or in saving 
for her employer the maximum amount of current. Learn 
to disconnect at the iron or at the insert rather than at the 
socket, if a lamp socket has to be used. Don't leave an 
iron to heat. ''Stay by the ship" for the short time re- 
quired. Iron all heavy materials with the current on 
throughout the process, but for lighter fabrics learn to 
turn the current off, and iron by retained heat. If your 
electric rate costs 10^ a kilowatt hour the iron will cost 
between five and six cents to operate each hour provided 
the current is in use all that time. 

139 



BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



The Laundry Trays 

Laundry trays may be one or two in number with the 
washing machine installed beside or in front of one of 
them. These trays should be set 36 inches from the rim to 
the floor. Use a platform to raise a washing machine to 
this level if it should be necessary. Some perfectly good 
machines are not quite high enough for this setting ; which 
has been proven by years of test experience as most con- 
venient for the work. Instead of the usual tray if you are 
planning new installations I suggest the so-called "slop 
sink." It is straight-sided and has in consequence a greater 
capacity for its size. Moreover, the sloping tray is not 
needed unless hand rubbing on a board is to be done. A 
still further suggestion: set one of the tubs 40 inches to 
the roll rim instead of 36. Such a tray is most excellent 
for hand washing of fine work as laces, silks, small wools, 
and the baby's daily wash. The squeezing motion entailed 
in this kind of hand washing can then be accomplished with 
ease and a straight back. Moreover, there is a decided ad- 
vantage in getting this type of wash out of the bathroom, 
at present a popular place for this fine laundering. 
In making your washing machine selection I have only two 
suggestions. First, choose one that is sold and therefore 
serviced in your neighborhood, in preference to one that 
is unfamiliar. In this way you will be assured of a maxi- 
mum of dealer interest and service when "garage work 
on your machine may be necessary. 

140 



ft 



EQUIPMENT, CHOICE AND INSTALLATION 

Second, protect yourself from poorly made and designed 
machines by selecting only such machines as have been ap- 
proved by Good Housekeeping Institute. Any principle of 
operation, cylinder, vacuum cup, oscillating, or a varia- 
tion or combination of them, will give satisfactory wash- 
ing results. It is preeminently a question of skilful de- 
sign and good construction on the part of the manufacturer. 
Let your own preference as to the type of machine you 
prefer guide you. 

But there is no exception to the necessity of piping the 
washing machine to both hot and cold water, and with a 
mixing faucet if possible. Again, connect it with the waste 
pipes or provide a floor drain for those machines that are 
not adapted to a rigid plumbing connection. You can pipe 
a cylinder type machine and certain of the vacuum cup 
type, but the oscillating type and the vacuum cup type 
with the centrifugal dryer are not well adapted to plumbing 
connection. If the floor drain, however, is properly placed 
the emptying is as easy if not easier than with the rigid 
connection. In the latter case an occasional inspection 
must be made to prevent clogging with lint, etc. If the 
plumber installs the machine with an extra trap provision 
it is a great convenience in caring for this. 

I know of nothing more important than proper water con- 
nection ; do not expect the laundress to exchange her piped 
laundry tubs for a machine to which she must carry water, 
and then must empty! In few cases wall she be enthusi- 

141 



BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



astic over the exchange. Carrying water is hard work, and 
I think it has been responsible for much lack of appreci- 
ation of the washing machines. 

A sewing table stocked with mending materials is some- 
what of an innovation in the home laundry ; but it is found 
in commercial laundries and I know you will find it feas- 
ible and a time saver to accomplish certain mending as 
buttons, etc., while the clothes are rough dry. An occa- 
sional bit of fine mending is even needed before washing. 

Where a kitchen cabinet is not provided shelves can be 
built into the laundry to accommodate utensils and sup- 
plies. The main point is to see that laundry utensils are 
kept for laundry use and are never exchanged with those 
used in the kitchen. 

Occasionally certain clothes will require boiling", therefore, 
a copper boiler and a stick for stirring must be provided. 
If the fuel is gas, select a low laundry stove design, not 
more than 26 inches from the floor — or buy a two or three 
burner plate and set it on a metal covered table cut down 
so that the overall height will be 26 inches. 
Finally, every stage of the handling of the clothes is im- 
measurably helped by the work bench put on casters. I 
had a carpenter make mine with an area that just accom- 
modates the clothes basket, and a height of only 16 inches. 
A push of the foot carries the basket the length of the room 
if necessary and all stooping to your task is forever elimi- 

142 



EQUIPMENT, CHOICE AND INSTALLATION 

nated. In this connection I want to say that setting up 
exercises even for the soldiers are not kept up throughout 
a period as long as the average washday ; which is sufficient 
answer to certain enthusiastic advocates of "old-fashioned 
housework for health's sake." 

I am often asked if it is possible to train helpers to use 
machinery and to care for it properly. In my experience 
every bit of machinery that was properly installed to 
really save labor has been enthusiastically accepted after a 
trial. Provided the housekeeper herself knows how to use 
the machines she can easily teach a maid how to use them. 
It is well worth the time and effort to stay by with the 
demonstrator of the machine you purchase so that you, 
yourself, will know just how to oil it and just how to use it. 
Repair charges on machinery for the household are deserv- 
ing of a word. It is no more true of household appliances 
than it is of automobiles that they will never need repairs 
and renewal. I am afraid that we as women have been 
taught to expect too much of such machines. " Garage" 
charges for our machines are perfectly fair and to be ex- 
pected when there has been reasonable wear obtained from 
them. An occasional renewal of parts as they become worn 
out is to be expected. Careful oiling and the same care 
given to household machines that is accorded the family 
automobile will mean that all of the larger equipment may 
last an entire lifetime of service with such renewal of 

143 



BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



parts. The length of service yielded by a well-made ma- 
chine is entirely a question of use and care. 

If you have two or three motors in service I have found it 
to pay to have a fixed monthly inspection by an electrician. 
This has prevented all emergency visits at a cost of two and 
sometimes three workers' time, and in the end proves the 
least expensive method of caring for them, unless you can 
do it yourself. 

Chemical Reagents for the Laundry 

The chemicals needed in the laundry require more than a 
mere mention. On the shelves should be kept the fol- 
lowing supplies, renewed as they become used up in the 
various processes: 

Enameled or nickeled starch kettle 

Coarse strainer 

Fine strainer for starch 

Enameled preserving kettle for boiling small things as handkerchiefs, 

etc., or for use in dyeing stockings, etc. 
Two clothes baskets, medium sized. 
Three smaller baskets for handling the small washes as baby's, silk, 

etc. 
Clotheslines, pins and bag. 
Clothesprops and clothestick for boiling 
Glass measuring cup and glass dropper 
Bottle sprinkling device 
Wood or enameled mixing spoons 
Strong sharp knife or grater for shaving soap 
Funnel 
Busters 
Flannel and cheesecloth 

144 



EQUIPMENT, CHOICE AND INSTALLATION 

Heavy paper 

Extra ironing cover 

Pins 

Cloth covers for each machine while not in use; discarded bedspreads 

of the dimity type have proved excellent 
In addition the reagent shelf should be stocked with: 

Liberal number of jars of melted soap 

Soap flakes and powdered soaps 

Water softeners in the form of package borax and washing soda 
solution 

Wax for irons 

Alum and salt for setting colors 

Javelle water for stains 

Starch 

Gum arabic for organdies 

Bluing, lingerie tints and dyes 



AN IRONING BOARD SUGGESTION 

I have found it extremely helpful to pad both sides of my 
ironing board, and then make a bag of muslin which fits 
the board snugly. A few tacks at the wide end of the board 
hold the cover in place. One side is clearly marked, and 
the members of the family know they must use this side 
for pressing trousers, serge skirts, or anything liable to 
stain or soil the cover. This leaves the other side always 
clean and ready for the regular laundry work. 

— Good Housekeeping Discovery. 

A NEW USE FOR THE SOAP SHAKER 

A soap shaker will be found invaluable when re-dipping 
fabrics with soap dye. Place the cake of soap dye in the 

145 



BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



soap shaker and shake it back and forth in the water as 
when using soap. In this way the hands are not stained, 
and an even distribution of color is insured. 

— Good Housekeeping Discovery. 

COAT HANGERS FOR DRYING CLOTHES 

When compelled to dry clothes in the house on account of 
bad weather, I use coat hangers for each garment and hang 
them on the line. This plan utilizes space to a wonderful 
extent and is very satisfactory. The coat hangers can be 
purchased for five cents each and frequently, two for five 
cents. — Good Housekeeping Discovery. 



146 



CHAPTER III 



Washing Formulas 

Soaps and Soap Compounds 

SUCCESSFUL washing by machine is not dependent 
upon any one variety of soap. I have never used one 
that could not be handled with perfectly satisfactory 
results. 

But successful washing is extremely dependent upon the 
form and manner in which this soap is used. Indeed it 
is safe to say that if you have not already used your 
chosen soap in a dissolved form, you have not attained 
the utmost efficiency of which the machine is capable. 

There are plain laundry soaps and borax laundry soaps, 
naphtha soaps and various other special soaps ; some- 
times in combinations with bluing. All are good, but don 't 
try to use them in either bar or chip form or cut into 
even the smallest pieces. Instead dissolve them by shav- 
ing 1 or grating first ; then, with all save the naphtha soaps, 
use hot water and heat until the soap is dissolved. Use 
one-half pound of soap chips or a bar of soap to two 
quarts of water. 

147 



BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



Naphtha soap has an additional solvent in the form of 
naphtha and it must be protected against evaporation. 
Therefore, in the case of naphtha soap shave a bar into 
each of two quart jars, fill them with lukewarm water, 
cover and place on the shelf for use. 

There is a decided advantage in making up these for- 
mulas each washday for use the next week. In this 
way the shelves are assured to be never empty. I have 
known of more than one poor wash to result from the 
laundress lacking the soap solution and in too great a 
haste to get the wash out on the line to first make solu- 
tions. Such haste never pays. 

Flake and powdered soaps do not need this preliminary 
dissolving, and if it were not for their greater cost, their 
convenience of use would undoubtedly insure their routine 
place in the home laundry. Even so it is well to keep 
a supply on hand for any emergency failure of the solu- 
tion. My only suggestion is: to keep the soap flakes 
a bit "under your thumb" or you will find the " emer- 
gency' ' arising often. 

Softeners 

In connection with soap in solution there is an equally 
important phase of its use. Just why the time at which 
the suds is developed should have any influence on the 
actual washing efficiency, frankly, I do not know. But 
repeated trials have amply demonstrated that the water, 

148 



WASHING FORMULAS 



and softener if used, and the soap solution should be 
agitated into suds before any clothes are put into the 
machine. Try two batches in the two ways and I am sure 
you will find, as I do, that when the soiled clothes are put 
in, then the w r ater added, and finally the soap, there is very 
little suds developed even with a great deal of soap used, 
and the cleansing power seems to be seriously lessened. If 
you run the machine empty of clothes but containing the 
w T ater, softener if used, and soap solution for two or three 
moments you will see for yourself the rich suds that are 
produced : sufficient promise of the efficient wash they will 
insure. 

In addition to the soap solution many housekeepers will 
need water softeners because there are few waters avail- 
able that are really "soft." Rain water is the nearest to 
this condition and the old-fashioned housekeeper had a 
real reason for storing rain water in hogsheads for her 
laundry use ; she well knew that washing was a simplified 
process when water was soft. Borax will dissolve quickly 
and may be added to the water in powdered form, if done 
before the clothes are put in the machine. If water 
conditions permit it, the borax in combination with soap 
may be used. Again, washing soda is entirely harmless 
to the clothes if properly used in the form of solution. 
Make this solution by pouring one gallon of hot water 
over one pound of washing soda. One-half cup of this 
strength solution is a good unit for the machine tub. 

149 



BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



Always add it after the water has been placed in the tub 
and before either soap or clothes are put in. The amount 
you will need is absolutely dependent upon your own water 
conditions as well as upon the character of the soiled linen. 
It is safe to say that more will be needed when water is very 
hard and it is further safe to say that more will be needed 
when there are any marked odors of perspiration, or ex- 
cretions incidental to certain chronic illnesses. 

Remember you are using it as a soap saver to counteract 
some of the hardness in the water; therefore, take utmost 
advantage of the chemical reaction between water salts 
and the soda. It leaves a more or less softened water 
for the soap solution to develop into suds. 

And this indeed brings us to the discussion of one of the 
biggest problems of the home laundry: numbers of house- 
keepers are trying to make their clothes clean in a water 
so hard and brackish as to be impossible of "suds." Un- 
questionably then the character of your water supply 
should somewhat affect the choice of soap and washing 
formula. In the majority of water conditions, good re- 
sults can be obtained with any of them. But where 
there is trouble it usually develops as a sticky deposit 
almost like tiny specks of gray chewing gum appearing 
on the clothes. It is extremely difficult to remove, and 
ironing makes it practically indelible. 

In these cases I suggest that too much water softener has 
been used in the form of soda or borax either in solution 

150 



WASHING FORMULAS 



or in combination with soap. It is a better washing prin- 
ciple I believe in such cases to attempt no water soften- 
ing at all; instead choose your soap carefully and count 
on using just about double the quantity. 

Naphtha soap works especially well under such circum- 
stances. It was my experience to be forced to use a par- 
ticularly hard water during one summer. I used naphtha 
soap made into solution as directed. Four bars each week 
accomplished perfectly the laundry that involved linen for 
five beds, as well as the balance of a family wash of this 
size. Try it if you are thus troubled and I am sure 
that you will be convinced of its efficiency. 

There may even be conditions of water hardness so ex- 
cessive that they warrant the installation of one of the 
small water softening" plants, especially designed for the 
household. These are practical, not unduly expensive, and 
of course completely correct this evil. Their cost of in- 
stallation and maintenance is directly dependent upon the 
degree of hardness of the water to be corrected. 

Washing formulas may then consist of any one of the fol- 
lowing four: Neutral soap in solution accompanied by a 
water softener, either in the form of borax or washing 
vsoda in solution. Second, a solution of plain laundry 
soap which is the manufacturer's own mixture of soap 
and softener. Third, naphtha soap in solution. Fourth, 
a combination of soap, bluing and softener, to be found 
in flake and bar form. Select the one you prefer and 

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BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



use as stipulated; as a solution and as a rich suds which 
cleanses the fabric by a combined mechanical and chemical 
process. 

Blues and Tints 

There is so wide a difference in behavior among bluings 
that many washing defects can be traced to their incorrect 
use. There are three kinds that lend themselves well to 
modern home laundry use. Possibly Prussian blue is 
most commonly used. It is a bright greenish blue in 
color and almost invariably sold in liquid form. House- 
keepers tiave liked it because of its color and the ease 
with which it is used. But it has a real drawback in 
the fact that it contains a salt of iron which may turn 
to iron rust, in the presence of alkali and particularly when 
heat is applied, as in ironing. You will see, then, the 
necessity for an absolutely thorough rinsing. If a trace of 
soap is left in the fabric through careless rinsing it will com- 
bine with the bluing and the result is a discoloration due 
to iron oxide. You can readily see, therefore, that Prus- 
sian blue entails exceptional care in rinsing. If you 
are not sure the bluing you are using is Prussian, test 
it by heating a little with a strong solution of washing 
soda. It will turn a yellowish red and the red iron rust 
will deposit in the bottom of the utensil. 

Ultrajnarine is another bluing entirely different both in 
composition and in behavior. It used to be the blue lapis 
lazuli stone finely ground but today it is more often 

152 



WASHING FORMULAS 



prepared in the chemical laboratory and carries with it 
a large amount of clay filler. It is, of course, insoluble 
and yields a tint to the clothes by depositing its fine 
grains evenly on the threads of the fabric. The finer 
the grain the more even will be the bluing result. It is 
usually sold in ball or block form. And in its use there 
are two points to note: Always tie it in a small cloth 
and dip and squeeze the water until the desired strength 
is secured. Test out the bluing water with a white cloth 
to see if it is the right color. Second, such a bluing must 
be used with the water kept constantly in motion to pre- 
vent the particles settling unevenly on the clothes or at 
the bottom of the tub. Shake the clothes out well and at- 
tempt only a few pieces at a time. 

The bluing color yielded by ultramarine is very good. 
You can tell if your bluing is ultramarine by letting it 
stand in a glass when the blue powder will settle to the 
bottom. 

Aniline bluing is a new form to many housekeepers, al- 
though it is popular with the commercial laundries. It 
is found in powdered or crystal form and is, therefore, a 
soluble bluing with no waste. Like the ultramarine it 
can produce no iron rust stein. It must usually be bought 
from laundry supply houses, either by the ounce or the 
pound. It is so strong a dye that a much smaller quantity 
is required than of any other blue on the market. Its 
color is good and it adapts itself to a variety of tints from 

153 



BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



pale blue to almost purple. Indeed it is the difficulty the 
inexperienced find in getting the same tint each time that 
has prevented this bluing becoming more popular. With 
this bluing it is just as essential that all soap is carefully 
rinsed out of the clothes because it does not set well in 
the presence of alkalies. Again, it is a powerful dye 
and if too much is used it is difficult to wash and bleach 
it out. 

You will see that the disadvantages of each one of 
these bluings are readily counteracted by correct using, 
and it becomes then a most satisfactory plan to select 
the brand which seems best suited to your individual needs 
and then accustom yourself to its individual use. The ac- 
curate measurement of bluing is a new thought to the 
experienced laundress but it is worth a trial if aniline 
is used. It must be remembered also that the effect of 
bluing is different on different weaves. Open weaves as 
toweling take bluing so readily that a weaker solution 
is required than for the most closely woven sheeting, etc. 
Learn to know the possibilities and guard against the 
defects of the bluing you select. 

Lingerie Tints and Dyes 

But bluing is after all but one of the tints used in the 
laundry of today. Soap tints in the form of cakes or 
flakes or as a rinsing powder insure the original color 
throughout the life of the garment. Flesh, orchid, peach, 
maize, blue and the new shade of green are the most 

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WASHING FORMULAS 



popular. A supply of each one of these may be on the 
reagent shelf. 

When making the soap tints, a satisfactory method is to 
make the solution first, and add it to the water. Again, 
it is a real dye saver to have the first washing of the 
garments accomplished with regular soap, jelly or flakes. 

Another method of extending the dye soap is to add 
enough more white soap flakes or jelly to insure the 
added cleansing suds. Most of the soap flakes dissolve 
rapidly enough if very hot water is poured over them, 
adding cold water as soon as the soap is dissolved to yield 
the right washing temperature. 

If the tint you are using is in the form of a cake you 
have a choice of procedure. Either make it into a soap 
jelly by shaving it and dissolving it in one-half cupful 
of hot water or put the cake in a soap shaker, and shake 
in very hot water until you have obtained a sufficiently 
strong suds. 

The amount to be used depends absolutely on the amount 
of fabric and the depth of color you wish. In general 
use the package directions. 

Tinting with a powder to be used in the rinse is perhaps 
the simplest of the methods and is, of course, merely an 
exchange of a tint for the bluing. Be as careful in wash- 
ing and rinsing as if bluing were used. In preparing 
the powder, pour hot water directly on it and cool down 

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BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



to lukewarm temperature. Unless you have a special reason 
for changing the proportion, one teaspoonful to each gal- 
lon of water will make a satisfactory color rinse. 

Starches and Starching 

The days of prodigal use of starch have gone by with 
the fashion of " rustling' ' silks. The aim today is to re- 
place only the manufacturer's dressing which yielded the 
fine sheen and newness to the fabric. Instead of being 
stiff, it must have its original firmness but keep its plia- 
bility with the gloss and finish that tends to repel moisture 
and soil. 

Many mothers discovered to their sorrow that the un- 
starched, unironed fabrics advocated for children's clothes 
made so much more washing that the labor-saving quality 
was problematical. This was because the roughened fabric 
attracted dirt and smooching instead of repelling it, as 
the smoothly starched and ironed fabric does. For this 
reason use starch with discretion, but don't discard it 
entirely from your laundry regime. ^ 

Few of us realize that there is a variety in starches 
adapted for laundry work as : corn, wheat, rice and blended 
starches. The blended starches are combinations of two 
or all of the others, with possibly some borax and par- 
affine or wax included. This is what the purchaser usually 
gets when she buys a packaged form of " laundry starch." 
The quality of starch which makes it adapted to laundry 

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WASHING FORMULAS 



dressing is its stickiness or tenacity, called by the chemist 
viscosity. Wheat starch has less of this viscosity but 
more pliability and rice has the least of all. 

The secret of having starch free from lumps is to first 
mix the starch with a small amount of cold water. Stir 
it constantly as you pour it into the correct amount of 
water that is boiling. This boiling temperature bursts 
open the starch grains, producing an evenly stiffened mass. 
Boil five minutes to completely cook the starch. A thick 
starch for heavy cottons uses one gallon of water and three 
fourths cups of cornstarch, or one and a quarter cups 
of either rice or wheat starch. A medium starch for 
lingerie is made by using one-half the amount of starch 
and the same quantity of water. Keduce this strength 
one-half by adding hot water and it is excellent for voile 
waists and similar very thin cotton fabrics. Such a starch 
thickness is not enough to add an appreciable stiffening 
to the fabric, but does afford a smoothness to the ironed 
garment that repels soil. Keep the starch hot and covered 
until ready for use. If it cools to produce the heavy film 
on top, strain it before use. 

An easy procedure in starching is to add the starch to the 
laundry tray and starch those garments that need this 
original strength first, and those that require the least 
strength last. Run the clothes through the wringer, loosen- 
ing the tension. This protects the hands, for it is not 
comfortable to wring clothes from starch as hot as it 

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BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



should be used. And it further helps to distribute the 
starch evenly through the fabric. 

Just a suggestion for both bluing and starching in 
machines having a centrifugal dryer. In this case use 
a much weaker solution of both bluing and starch. You 
may have to experiment a little to determine the best 
strength for your work, but it is a safe suggestion to 
start with fifty per cent, reduction in solution. 

By the way, the manufacturer has ample reason for his 
blending, because he thus takes advantage of the various 
properties of the starches themselves and the borax, alum 
and paraffine, although not absolutely necessary, unques- 
tionably improve the starch, making it both easier to use 
and more uniform in results. 

Gum axabic and dextrine are starch substitutes especially 
adapted for the very delicate fabrics as organdie and baby's 
nainsook. The proportion of two tablespoonfuls to a quart 
of water will give these fabrics an appearance and body 
much like the original. In purchasing dextrine be sure 
that you get white dextrine for white or light colors. In 
preparing either the dextrine or gum arabic, they need 
only be dissolved in hot water. 



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WASHING FORMULAS 



WHEN STARCHING CLOTHES 

In doing the washing for my family in our electric washing- 
machine, I found that the starching of from forty to sixty 
garments and pieces of household linen was the most tedious 
and disagreeable part of the whole undertaking. Almost 
immediately I happened upon this plan which has proved 
a real time-saver. I make about three-quarters of a gallon 
of starch. When all the washing is finished and the clothes 
have been rinsed and wrung dry, I put about half of the 
pieces to be starched, shaken out lightly, into one of the 
stationary tubs. I pour half of the hot starch over them 
and wring them one by one through the power wringer, the 
top ones first. As the starch drips off the wringer board, 
I hold the next piece under to catch it, occasionally sopping 
the starch out of the corners of the tub also, and then re- 
peating the operation till all the clothes are wrung through. 
Then I put the rest of the pieces in the tub and pour the 
balance of the starch over them, repeating the wringing 
process. The starch is evenly distributed through the 
clothes, and I have no trouble with lumps when ironing 
them. If any piece is desired very stiff, it can be dipped 
in the starch first. — Good Housekeeping Discovery. 



159 



CHAPTER IV 



Laundry Methods 



The Chemistry of Washing 

IT was a manufacturer who asked me somewhat skepti- 
cally, I will admit, where I learned to wash. The kernel 
of truth as to the mechanics of washing came to me in the 
Village of Waquoit, a part of Falmouth Township on 
Cape Cod. My childhood summers were passed there, also 
the summers of a family of six boys, who were dubbed ' ' the 
white duck brigade." Now these boys had to do their 
own washing and they were always immaculate. Here 
was their method: Each morning as they went out in 
their catboat, just as soon as the eel grass zone was passed, 
they threw overboard the "white ducks" tied to a line. 
Until the sail was over, their suits cut through the water, 
only to be pulled on board upon arrival at the mooring, 
wrung dry, and stretched flat on the decks beneath weights. 

Here in a nutshell is the mechanical principle of washing. 
Send a cleansing fluid through fabric with sufficient force 
to dislodge dirt. 

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LAUNDRY METHODS 



But the chemistry of washing was harder to get. It re- 
quired long years of puzzling over wrist-band and neck- 
band soils that are not easily removed. It required the 
watching of laundress after laundress, one a good laundress 
who washed easily, one a poor laundress who washed with 
great muscular effort, but grimy clothes. It required close 
study in a bacteriological laboratory to trace the question 
of sanitation and germ growth. It required practical wash- 
ing experience. 

Out of all of this has grown a few simple principles, which 
will make more intelligible and helpful any washing direc- 
tions that you may have been using. 

First, in spite of any directions to the contrary that may 
accompany your washing machine, do not use boiling' water 
or very hot water in which to wash your clothes. And 
here is the reason. Test factory washes were naturally com- 
posed of garments that were easy to obtain, like the men's 
overalls and working jumpers, and the towels that were 
stained with machine oils and greases. In every case you 
will note that the soil was held in the fabric by a vegetable 
or mineral oil. These oils unite very readily with hot water 
and soap to form emulsions and saponifications, and in 
forming either of these the dirt that is held in the fabric 
is loosened. Hence, the hotter the water the quicker and 
cleaner was the washing. I am convinced after conferences 
with numerous manufacturers, that here lies the source of 
many incorrect directions for using a washing machine. 

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BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



The soils met with in a family wash are radically dif- 
ferent, and far more difficult to remove. I have mentally 
analyzed them to contain the following materials and will 
try to tell you the properties of these materials as they 
affect washing". The kind that we are most familiar with 
is the black soil or dirt that is always held in the fabric 
by another more or less sticky compound. In the case of 
the overalls it was a vegetable or mineral oil, but in the 
case of wearing apparel it is animal fat. It is the animal 
fats that make the most trouble when boiling water is 
used, because each globule of them is encased in a film of 
albuminous material and it is cooked into the fabric by boil- 
ing water instead of being loosened to release the grime. 
Now this is the secret of much of your trouble with wrist- 
bands and neckbands. It explains why you have to rub 
after washing in your machine. It explains the yellowish 
stain on pillow cases after repeated machine washing in 
hot water. In the same way fruit, coffee and tea stains 
which have dried are hopelessly set by soaking or washing 
in too hot water, although these stains yield to actually 
boiling water when applied directly to the fresh stain. Had 
you used lukewarm water you would have taken advantage 
of both the mechanics and the chemistry of washing. 

The old-fashioned method of hand washing safeguarded 
you against using too hot water, because you could not 
put your hands into it. Wristbands and neckbands re- 
sponded easily to the laundress who was clever enough 

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LAUNDRY METHODS 



not to rub her knuckles but to " souse' y suds through the 
fabric. Are there not, then, good practical reasons — based 
upon the science of chemistry to be sure, but none the less 
practical for that — for my insistence upon your use of luke- 
warm to medium hot water ? 

The second point that I insist upon is that soap should be in 
solution, and this, too, has a chemical reason. Solution in 
its actual definition merely means the distribution of the 
particles so evenly that one spoonful contains as much as 
another spoonful. Is there not then good reason for having 
your washing solution of this even strength? 

The third thing I insist upon is that you shall not soap the 
clothes, and the reason for this is that you clog up the 
pores, making it difficult for the rush of suds to pass 
through them and making it doubly difficult to rinse out 
the soap which is absolutely necessary to whiteness of the 
clothes. 

The fourth thing I insist upon is that you shall not soak 
the clothes, the reason for this being that you weaken the 
washing solution, because the clothes instead of being dry 
and light are heavy with dirty water that dilutes the wash- 
ing fluid. 

Fifth, work out your own choice of soap and softener, and 
use it according to directions given on page 148. Increase 
the soap strength of your suds in direct proportion to the 
amount of work you expect it to do. For instance, a solu- 
tion that would be amply strong to care for table linen and 

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BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



bed linen might not be strong enough by one-half for 
underwear and body linen in general. Children's rompers 
and white stockings offer a real problem. The latter are 
so close in texture that it is difficult to force the washing 
fluid through the fabric with sufficient force to completely 
cleanse. Make the proportion, then, an individual problem 
to be worked out by you since you are the only one who 
can know the conditions in which the clothes are used. 

In certain sections of the country there is a clay so sticky 
as to present a problem all its own. We can only urge that 
the principle of washing outlined for you is the right one, 
properly controlled to suit your condition. 

Perhaps the sixth point is the most important hint for 
the mother of small children. The handling of a large 
quantity is no longer the biggest work item when washing 
by machine, as it was when washing by hand. Therefore, 
increase generously the number of pieces allowed the chil- 
dren. Do not let them wear socks and rompers long enough 
to need harsh methods. Wash more and oftener but less 
soiled pieces. Forget the old hand washing point of view, 
for the new machine washing is easier work. 

Boiling' should be optional. There will always be certain 
clothes that require boiling, as handkerchiefs, personal 
napkins, etc. There may even be periods of illness where 
boiling the bedding is important to accomplish. But 
routine boiling of the household linen is not necessary 
provided sufficient hot — scalding hot — rinses are used. The 

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LAUNDRY METHODS 



hotter the water, the nearer it approaches the steam scald 
of the commercial laundry, the whiter will be the clothes. 
If any particular garment or group bothers you, take par- 
ticular pains to wash it in fresh washing solution and rinse 
it two or three times in hot water before you put it into 
the cold rinse. Indeed so important is the rinsing to 
proper washing of clothes that it is not too much to say 
that the most perfect results are just in proportion to 
the hotness and abundance of the rinse waters. 

We urge the rinsing in the machine because it is most 
efficiently done there; indeed no amount of hand rinsing 
quite takes the place of the powerful agitation produced 
by the machine. You are not taking fullest advantage 
of your machine if you attempt to do the hot rinse by 
hand. 

A conservative housekeeper may ask how clothes can be 
kept sanitary without boiling. Do you realize that the 
temperature of the iron or ironer with which the clothes 
are ironed is from 500° F. down to 350° F.? Is not this 
fully as efficient as boiling or 212° F. in destroying germs? 
If clothes are not ironed there might be an argument for 
boiling for sanitation, as a routine practice. 

Routine of the Family Wash 

In making ready for washday be sure that machines are 
oiled, clean and ready for use. Glance at soap solutions 

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BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



and supplies and be assured that they are available for 
the use of the laundress. 

Next sort the linen into its usual divisions — table linen, 
bed linen, body linen, colored clothes, silks and wool, hose 
and the general scrub and dust cloths from the household 
cleaning closets. Discard any that need special stain treat- 
ment. 

Into the washing machine run a supply of boiling hot 
water. Add water softener if you use it and soap solu- 
tion, then run in cooler water to yield the correct temper- 
ature. It should not be hotter than the hand can bear. 
Connect the machine, turn on the motor switch, then the 
machine clutch and run the machine two or three minutes 
to develop suds. Open and add your first batch of clothes, 
dry from the sorting table. This tubful consists of table 
linen and the machine can be more nearly overloaded with 
this wash than any other group, because it is presumably 
the least soiled. Even so it is well to mix the sizes. Don't 
include in one run three or four large tablecloths even 
though the capacity of the machine is rated at six sheets. 
Much better washing results are obtained with a mixture 
of sizes. Two tablecloths with their napkins, doilies and 
small lunch cloths are a much better grouping. 

In any case wash for fifteen or twenty minutes, depending 
on the amount of soil. At this time it is possible to work 
in an occasional bit of stain removal that will make it pos- 

166 



LAUNDRY METHODS 



sible to include the stained cloth or table napkin in the 
next run of clothes. 

At the end of the washing period, wring the clothes as 
dry as possible into a waiting tub. I accent this dry- 
wringing because the more completely the washing solu- 
tion is removed from the fabric, the easier will be the rins- 
ing process. The first wringing then must be as complete as 
possible. 

At this point it is not necessary to discard the washing 
solution, instead add more soap solution, work the machine 
empty for a moment or two to develop fresh suds and add 
your second load of clothes : either a second batch of table 
linen or a first batch of bed linen. Again, with this group 
be sure that the sizes ara varied, for the same reason as men- 
tioned above. Again wring dry into the waiting tub. 

At this point it may be necessary to empty out the entire 
solution and start fresh. Let your own conditions govern 
you here. Two runs and sometimes three may be made 
by means of additional soap solution. But you must be 
the judge of the exact point at which new solutions must 
be made. There is, of course, a real economy gained in 
soap to use it for as many runs as gives good results, but 
do not try to economize on the hot water of rinsing. 

While the washing machine is taking care of the second 
batch of clothes it is, of course, possible to accomplish the 
rinsing in the tubs by hand, and it has been my experience 

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BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



that the experienced laundress will insist on doing it this 
way. To be sure, unless she can fill her time with stain 
removal or further sorting, she can show a real loss of 
time by waiting for the machine rinsing. It reads more 
efficient, I '11 admit, but the rinsing results are so much less 
effective per time and per w r ater and per gas used to heat 
the water that the housekeeper who once tries machine 
rinsing will, I feel, always continue it. 

My plan then is to allow the white clothes to accumulate 
until the washing solution is to be changed for the first 
time. At this point instead of refilling the machine with 
a washing solution rinse out the soap solution with a little 
hot water and then fill with as hot water as you can obtain. 
Put in the clothes that have been wrung dry, a few at a 
time, and rinse for five minutes. Discard this rinsing solu- 
tion often. I feel that this rinsing has such an influence 
upon the appearance of the clothes, that their whiteness 
is almost in proportion to the generosity of the water 
used at this point. 

When they have been thus rinsed, wring as dry as possible 
into cold water. Let stand while you fill the machine with 
washing solution and start another run of clothes. From 
this time on the washing and rinsing processes dovetail into 
each other, since there is always something to be done. 

From the cold rinse, wring the clothes into the blue rinse. 
This cold rinse, by the way, has a real blanching effect 
on the clothes and, therefore, should not be omitted, and 

168 



LAUNDRY METHODS 



clothes should be wrung as dry as possible. But in wring- 
ing from the bluing water wring loosely if the clothes are 
to be hung in the open. There is a real bleaching effect, 
resulting from the separation of the oxygen in the water, 
held in the clothes, through the action of the sun and air. 
This is the principle used in the famous " grass bleached" 
linen. 

So soon as the white clothes are completed it is possible 
to make a machine washing of either the silks or the wools 
provided there are enough of either one to warrant it. In 
this case, however, use the mildest of soap jelly or soap 
flakes. Never use water softener for silks or wools. Wash 
as usual, wringing dry from the washing solution. Rinse 
according to the directions given for the special washing 
of silks and wools. 

Wash the stockings separately and never mix cotton, silk 
or wool, since the three are so different in texture that 
it is not possible to keep any of them free from lint deposit 
unless they are separately handled. 

Colored clothes need special handling. In general the 
solution should be the same as for flannel but it is wiser 
to wash but one colored frock at a time, unless one is per- 
fectly certain of its fast color. I know of no calamity 
w r orse than the dyeing of a whole tubful of clothes through 
the " bleeding' ' of the dye in just one small romper. If 
but one is washed at a time until you are certain of its 
color, such a catastrophe will never occur. On the other 

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BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



hand there are certain colored goods that may be washed 
with the white clothes: as men's shirts and children's 
frocks and rompers of colored percale. Ginghams, cham- 
brays and prints must be washed alone. 

Finally in washing colored clothes be as careful in rinsing 
as with the white clothes. In general follow the same direc- 
tions for the manipulation of the machine. 

It is only fair to say for this whole method of washing that 
it is successful only when the suggestions are followed in 
their entirety. There have been sufficient responses from 
housekeepers who have used the method for it to have 
more than the assurance of one person's experience, but 
I have traced poor results to: failure to develop a good 
suds before attempting to wash ; starting a load then stop- 
ping the machine long enough to attend to other duties 
while the clothes were left to stand in the washing solu- 
tion; to the use of chunks of soap instead of dissolved 
soap; to occasionally mixing the various groups of linens; 
to the overcrowding of the machine and most often of 
all to careless and incomplete rinsing. 

The Removal of Stains 

Stains which you know will need more than just soap and 
water should be removed before washing. Do not expect 
to take out stains of any character from colored clothes 
without affecting the color. A bleach strong enough to 
remove a stain is strong enough to remove a dye. 

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LAUNDRY METHODS 



Javelle water is a bleach for which you will have greatest 
use. You can purchase it at the drug store ready made, 
or you can make it yourself following this procedure : Put 
one pound of washing soda into an agate — never an alu- 
minum — pan and add one quart of boiling water. Mix 
one-half pound of chloride of lime in two quarts of cold 
water. Let the mixture settle and pour the clear liquid 
into the dissolved soda. Bottle and keep in a dark place. 
To remove stains from white goods soak the article in 
equal quantities of Javelle water and hot water until the 
stain disappears, then rinse thoroughly in several waters 
and finally in diluted ammonia water. Javelle removes all 
stains and all colors and, therefore, should not be used 
on colored goods. 

Oxalic acid may be prepared in the following manner: Dis- 
solve one pound of crystals in three-fourths of a cupful of 
water. 

Potassium Permanganate is made by dissolving two table- 
spoonfuls of permanganate crystals in one quart of water. 
Here are a few general rules you should keep in mind when 
using chemicals: 

1. Apply chemical directly to the stain with a medicine 
dropper or glass stirring rod. 

2. Do not allow the chemical to remain in contact with the 
material too long, as it will injure the fabric. 

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BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



3. Rinse quickly and thoroughly after applying any 
chemical. 

4. Chemicals will yellow silks and woolens and will remove 
color. 

5. Heat accelerates chemical action. 

6. If uncertain about the action of a reagent, test it first 
on a piece of material. 

Common Stains and Their Reagents 
Iron Rust — Apply lemon and salt and hold spot over steam. 

Fruit — Hold stained portion taut over a bowl and pour 
boiling water on it from a height so that it will strike the 
fabric with force. For old stains, use Javelle water. 

Coffee and Tea — Spread the stain over a bowl and cover 
the spot with a paste of borax and cold water. Then pour 
on it boiling water from a height. Stains of long standing 
will require Javelle water. 

Chocolate — Apply a paste of borax and cold water, then 
pour boiling water from a height. 

Grass — "Wash a fresh stain in cold w r ater without soap. 
Another method is to rub with molasses, let stand a few 
minutes and then wash out in warm water. The last resort 
is Javelle water. 

Ink — Ink is most difficult of all stains because one must 
first identify the variety of ink. For that reason, the com- 

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LAUNDRY METHODS 



mercial eradicators, which may be purchased, we believe 
the best choice. Follow the directions on the box. 

Mildew — This is a living 1 plant which will not grow if light 
and air can reach the fabric. It may be removed while 
very fresh with cold water. In later stages apply potas- 
sium permanganate, then wash with warm water, use oxalic 
acid, and wash again. Oxalic acid will remove any brown 
left by the permanganate. Javelle water is a third method. 
If the mildew has attacked the fiber of the cloth, the 
strongest chemical will have no effect. 

Vaseline — Wash a fresh stain with turpentine. The stain 

cannot be removed after it has been boiled. 

i 
Wagon grease — Rub the stain with lard, keeping a cloth 

beneath it. Then wash with warm water and soap. 

Sprinkling and Folding 

There is even a right and a wrong way to do these routine 
tasks. The supplies needed are a sprinkling surface that 
is absolutely clean and some method or device for distribut- 
ing the water evenly. The experienced laundress scatters 
it with the hand over the fabric but few housekeepers can 
equal her skill. A whisk broom dipped into the water 
and snapped with the wrist above the fabric to be sprinkled 
proves effective. Or you can use one of the bottle sprink- 
ling devices. 

Hot water is more evenly distributed and by a form of 
" capillary attraction, ' ' so be sure that the temperature of 

173 



BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



the water is too hot to be borne by the hand if you are using 
one of these devices. If not, have it as hot as yon can 
bear yonr hand. But after all sprinkling begins with the 
process of taking down from the line. If you will take 
the clothes down at the point that they are just "not dry" 
you will find it an ideal time to iron. Only practice will 
give you just the point that is best. 

In general have clothes about twice as wet for the ironing 
machine as you do for ironing by hand. Again learn to 
keep a bowl of hot water handy to the ironing board ; with 
a sponge or clean cloth you can dampen any portion of 
a garment that becomes dried or wrinkled during the iron- 
ing process. 

Sheets should not need sprinkling, instead they should 
be removed from the line at the right point for ironing. 
If they do have to be sprinkled, fold lengthwise, then into 
quarters. Sprinkle one side, then the other, turn and 
sprinkle but one of the remaining quarters. Fold the 
unsprinkled quarter inside and roll into a compact hard 
bundle one-quarter the entire width of the sheet. 

Towels are best sprinkled in an "every other one" layer. 
Sprinkle the first one generously, place a dry napkin on 
top, add another, and sprinkle this one generously. Con- 
tinue sprinkling every other one in the bundle, then roll 
into a compact tight bundle. This rolling, by the way, 
has a real effect on the even distribution of water. 

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LAUNDRY METHODS 



Pillow cases and napkins may be sprinkled in a similar 
way; in fact, all small flat work should be grouped to- 
gether. 

Garments should be sprinkled and rolled each in its sep- 
arate bundle; otherwise they would dry before it is pos- 
sible to complete the ironing. 

Just a word about mildew. This is a mold growth that 
grows only under warm damp conditions. Clothes thrown 
wet down a laundry chute, as in the case of discarded 
towels, cause untold trouble during the warm months of 
the year. In large families it is not a bad practice to 
lock the clothes chute-door and use hampers for routine 
use. Each day this clothes hamper is emptied and the 
contents aired and dried before sending down the chute. 
This, of course, is not necessary where one worker takes 
care of the linen. 

Even in sprinkling, this mildew problem deserves a word 
of caution, because it is possible for it to develop in the 
clothes basket when clothes are sprinkled and left unduly 
long before ironing. It should be possible to sprinkle a 
basket of clothes, cover with a dampened cloth, and have 
them perfectly ready for ironing the next morning. But, if 
weather conditions are very bad, it is inadvisable to dampen 
them more than two or three hours ahead of time. Ee- 
member in leaving them for the longer period they must 
be dampened more than for the shorter time. A clothes 
basket or receptacle that has once held badly mildewed 

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BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



clothes should be given a drastic scald and airing in the 
hot sun to bill any lurking mold growth, that may cause 
further trouble with new clothes. 

Tub the Silks 

Wash Silks are so common a fabric in the modern home 
that it has injected a new problem for washday. Silks do 
not soil easily probably because of the smoothness of the 
fiber. Moreover, soil is easily removed from the silk surface. 
And now that the manufacturer has solved the problem 
of producing a fabric that can be laundered to preserve 
its color and sheen, silk must be judged on its merits as 
a fabric in wear, convenience, comfort and cost. The 
following axioms touch the high spots of laundering silk : 

1. Use only neutral soap. 

2. Have the wash water lukewarm. 

3. Have all rinse waters lukewarm. 

4. Squeeze, not rub, out the soil. 

5. Squeeze out the water — do not wring. 

6. Hang the silks up to "breathe" in the air, but not the sun. 

7. Eoll separately. 

8. Iron with only a medium-hot iron. 

Just as in all washing, separate your white and colored 
pieces. Make a good, live suds first, by adding the soap 
to hot water, then cooling to lukewarm with cold water. 
Next put in your silks. Do not soak them, but wash at 
once, and use a squeezing rather than a rubbing motion to 
force the suds through the fiber. 

176 



LAUNDRY METHODS 



Rinse at least twice in clear, warm water, the same tem- 
perature as that used for washing. Here lies one of the 
secrets of preserving the whiteness of silks. Extremes 
of temperature are disastrous, so do not subject the silk 
to either excessive heat or cold, but instead maintain a 
warm temperature for the whole procedure. Let me em- 
phasize, too, thorough rinsing, for any suds left in the silk 
will surely yellow it when it is ironed. 

The usual method of wringing should not be used. Instead, 
squeeze the silk between the hands, extracting as much 
water as possible, and at the same time putting no exces- 
sive strain on the delicate fibers. After squeezing as dry 
as possible, shake the silk and hang it up indoors for a 
very few minutes, fifteen to twenty. As an expert colored 
laundress aptly expressed it, "I hangs the silks up just 
long enough to let them breathe." The oxygen in the 
air has a bleaching effect on the fiber. Not only does this 
method tend to whiten the silk, but it also shortens the 
process greatly. 

Before the silks are even partially dry, take them down 
and roll each individual piece separately in a towel. There 
are two methods of doing this rolling. One method is 
to roll the article itself and then wrap it well in a towel, 
and the second method is to spread the silk waist, or what- 
ever it may be, on the towel and roll both together. The 
first method is the better if the silk has been allowed to 
6 'breathe/' because most of the excess water will have 

177 



BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



evaporated, and if rolled up in this way, the article will 
be just moist enough for ironing. On the other hand, if 
the silk has not been hung up at all, the latter method is 
the better. The towel will absorb the excess water, leav- 
ing the moisture evenly distributed. A Turkish towel has 
greater absorbent qualities than any other type of towel, 
and so is more satisfactory for this purpose. 

Then comes the ironing, and again temperature is most im- 
portant. Hot irons will stiffen and crack the silk as well 
as yellow it, so be sure the iron is not too hot. Determine 
the right temperature through practice. Keep the silk 
rolled up until ready to iron, and then iron it thoroughly 
dry. If possible, iron the silk on the wrong side; it will 
tend to produce a newer appearance. 

Plain colored silks can be kept uniform in tint with the 
colored soaps and tints. These tints come in flake, powder, 
and cake forms. The cake and flakes are soaps as well 
as tints and should be used in the wash water in addition 
to the plain suds. We have found it necessary to use 
plain soap also, because if enough of the soap tint is used 
to make a rich suds, the color will naturally be too dark. 
The powder is dissolved and used after the waist has been 
well rinsed. Put the powder in a white or very light bowl, 
and then pour over it a small amount of hot water and 
stir until it is in solution, then add cold water until the 
temperature is lukewarm and the desired shade has been 
reached. The degree of color will depend upon the amount 

178 



LAUNDRY METHODS 



of tint used and the length of time the waist is left in the 
tint. Remember that the shade will be lighter after the 
waist is ironed than while it is wet. 

Bluing should really be considered a tint. Unless you 
desire a bluish white, do not use it. Do not try to rescue 
an old waist by the use of bluing. The combination of the 
yellow and blue will give an undesirable greenish tint. 

If you have many silk articles, especially underwear, you 
can wash them just as well, if not better, in your washing 
machine, taking the same precautions as when washing by 
hand. Wash for fifteen to twenty minutes — or longer, if 
necessary — in warm, Cl sudsy' ' water and rinse well in clear 
water of exactly the same temperature. The rest of the 
procedure is exactly the same as when washing by hand. 

Wash very fine Georgette crepes separately, by hand. Al- 
though chiffons and Georgettes are not exactly delicate 
fabrics, they should be washed quickly and handled as little 
as possible. 

Now then, you see there are only a few fundamental rules 
to follow when laundering silks, but they must be observed 
judiciously, or the results will be poor. If you will re- 
member that silk, being an animal fiber, is easily affected 
by acid, alkali, and excessive heat, and treat it accordingly, 
following the method already outlined, I feel quite sure 
that the outcome will be entirely satisfactory. The life 
of the silk will be lengthened considerably, thus proving 
it an economical rather than an extravagant purchase. 

179 



BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



Eescue the Woolens 

The family wardrobe contains so many sweaters, light 
wool scarfs, etc., that the washing of small woolens has 
become an item even when a baby's woolens do not have 
to be cared for. 

Heretofore these have been the real bugbears of many 
housekeepers who dreaded to see the new fluffy garment 
become a hard, shrunken, misshapen one after the first 
laundering. 

It is surprising, however, to what degree they respond to 
right treatment in laundering and it is not too much to 
expect that provided they are handled right a soft well- 
shaped sweater, baby's shirt, or blanket will be your 
reward. 

Possibly a bit of knowledge as to what makes the wool 
fiber hard and shrunken together with plain directions 
how to wash will tend to overcome your reluctance to try 
these fabrics either by hand if they are small, or in the 
washing machine if they are too bulky for handling. 

Each woolen thread unlike cotton has come from a living 
breathing animal whose coat is kept soft and woolly by an 
animal fat called lanoline. Now in the presence of an 
alkali this fat is undoubtedly extracted to a greater or 
less degree. And, because heat always aids any chemical 
action, hot water greatly increases the difficulty. The more 
you extract of this lanoline fat and the higher the tem- 

180 



LAUNDRY METHODS 



perature of the water, the harder and more shrunken will 
the wool fiber become. 

I have washed blankets, pure wool flannel, sweaters and 
baby garments, and had them return to their original size 
and proportion, retaining their soft fluffiness by using the 
following method: First select a neutral soap or use any 
of the prepared soap flakes, or if you happen to have 
been interested in any special soap that is advocated for 
woolen use try it first on a square of pure wool flannel. 
Keep the original measurements and an unwashed sample. 
You will be enabled to detect any shrinking and difference 
in texture by a comparison. In any event dissolve the 
soap first and use as soap jelly. 

To hot water add the soap jelly or soap flakes, then add 
cold water until lukewarm. Note this temperature either 
by feeling or a thermometer because every succeeding 
water that is used must be of the same temperature. Whip 
the lukewarm solution into strong suds; an easy way to 
do this for a small wash is with a hand-whip egg beater. 
Into the solution place one garment at a time or two pairs 
of socks or stockings. Wash by squeezing in the rich 
soap suds, using a motion beneath the suds similar to pull- 
ing candy. With each motion squeezing out the suds and 
then allowing more to penetrate the fiber. When clean 
gently pat out the excess suds ; press gently but try to get 
as much out as possible, on the same principle as you use 

181 



BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



in the laundry when wringing dry as possible from the 
wash water. 

Just here the procedure changes, depending upon the hard- 
ness of water which you must use. Never try to soften 
water with a water softener; but if the water supply is 
naturally soft, a much better result in soft texture will 
be obtained if you rinse in clear waters of the same tem- 
perature as the wash water. On the contrary, if your 
water supply is hard, it is often better to rinse with a small 
amount of soap jelly added to each rinse water much as 
you wash chamois gioves. By this soap rinsing in hard 
water, you are safeguarding against any possible loss of 
the wool fat. Of course, in proportion to the hardness 
of the water increase the amount of the soap jelly used 
in the rinse. 

The next step in securing perfectly laundered wools is to 
overcome any tendency in drying, either to stretch out of 
shape or to shrink out of shape. An excellent method is 
to fasten a sheet or cloth taut over the clothes bars and 
then place the garment in exactly its original form. In 
the case of the sweater lay all the fullness in front, keep- 
ing the lines of the back accurate. Socks and stockings 
of wool should be stretched on frames; but this is not so 
expensive a procedure as it might seem, for excellent ones 
may be cut from cardboard. In using these cardboard 
frames I allow the stocking to become dry, or very nearly 
so before putting it on the frame. Then lay them away 

182 



LAUNDRY METHODS 



in the drawer and they stretch into perfect shape for wear. 
In cutting the cardboard frames use firm heavy card- 
board, preferably the corrugated variety and pattern them 
after one of the wooden frames suitable in size. By this 
method there is no necessity for purchasing but the one 
wood frame. I have used this practice with baby's and 
children's wool stockings and socks and with adult's golf 
stockings, etc. In the case of the latter it is an excellent 
procedure to cut them off just below the cuff of the golf 
stockings so that there will be no danger of stretching that 
to the point of looseness. 

Machine-Washed Blankets 

Blanket washing should no longer be considered a bugaboo 
by the housekeeper. She need not look with distress at 
the pile of winter blankets which should have been washed 
last spring, or the summer blankets which must go away 
now. She need not resort to binding the blanket edges 
with cheese-cloth, or to any of the other methods of keep- 
ing blankets clean. 

The washing machine has sufficiently lightened this task 
so that blankets may be washed more frequently in the 
home and need not be sent away to be cleaned. With 
this great boon to washing, it is quite possible to keep the 
blankets almost as sanitary as the sheets. As a labor saver, 
the machine cannot be excelled for washing heavy pieces 
like blankets, because it eliminates all that tiresome, back- 
bending strain. Furthermore, the machine is by far the 

183 



BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



best way to wash blankets, because of its power to force 
the suds through the fiber without any harsh rubbing, 
which is apt to be a temptation when washing by hand. 

Blankets, whether all wool or partly wool, require the same 
care in washing as all other woolens. Keep the temper- 
ature for both washing and rinsing warm to medium hot, 
and use a neutral soap in either flake or jelly form, so that 
it will readily go into solution. Make the jelly yourself 
by softening one cake of soap in two quarts of water. 

The first step in machine washing is to fill the tub up 
to the water line with water not above 110° P., and put 
into it about two cupfuls of soap jelly. Then let the 
machine run for two to three minutes to whip up a suds. 
If the solution seems to need more soap, add enough to 
produce a good, rich suds. Wash one blanket at a time if 
the blankets are double; if single, wash two together. 
Allow about fifteen minutes for the washing period, or 
longer if necessary, depending upon the amount of soil. 

Blankets, like all woolen pieces, should never be wrung hard 
or twisted. Put them through the wringer, but release the 
tension of the rolls so that there is scarcely any pressure 
at all. 

The wash water may look dark, but do not discard it, as 
it is still good as a dirt solvent and should all be removed 
in the rinsing. Instead, add more soap, work up a good 
suds, and use it to wash one more load of blankets. 

184 



LAUNDRY METHODS 



The temperature of the rinse water should as nearly as 
possible approximate that of the wash water. Rinse as 
directed on page 182. Where you can be assured of a 
reasonably soft water for washing, better results are ob- 
tained by rinsing with clear water. The harder the water, 
however, the more essential will the soap rinse be found. 

Bluing' is both unnecessary and undesirable for blankets. 
They naturally have a creamy tint which is most at- 
tractive. I presuppose that you have selected a clear 
breezy day so that the drying will be rapid. Quick drying 
is almost the most important consideration in retaining 
the fluffy lightness of the new blanket. An ideal way is 
to spread them on a lawn with a sheet placed underneath 
to prevent any possibility of soil from grass or insects. 
If the blankets are spread over a line take pains to have 
the weight evenly distributed on either side. Be sure that 
edge and corners meet. 

The centrifugal dryer is especially good for drying blankets 
since they develop a lightness and fluffiness like new, prob- 
ably due to the rapidity with which the fabric was dried. 
But for those who have not such a drying method, the 
above directions will safeguard. 

The same procedure in washing and rinsing can be used 
for down quilts. During the drying process, however, 
shake the quilts lightly every fifteen or twenty minutes 
if possible to redistribute the down. After the quilt is 
thoroughly dry the covering may be smoothed with a warm 

185 



BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



iron. Do not try to wash quilts filled with cotton or wool, 
but the latter may have their covers removed for washing 
and replaced when clean. 

Fitting the Baby's Wash Into the House Routine 

Every household is different in its plan of operation but 
so many single " maids of all work" look askance at a 
baby's wash, it occurred to me that some mothers would 
be interested in my handling of the situation. 

First, whether you do it yourself or hire it done, see that 
all diapers and urine stained garments are given an im- 
mediate rinsing in cold water and in the toilet, which has 
been flushed to yield you plenty of fresh cold water. Cold 
water is a solvent for this type of stain and if this pro- 
cedure is followed before the garment or diaper has been 
allowed to dry, you will have no trouble. Hot water, 
even warm water, adds to your difficulty by setting it as a 
stain. 

Indeed if you once try my method I am sure you will be 
convinced of its ease and efficacy. I will guarantee that 
no diaper rash can appear through diapers thus handled. 

After this first rinse wring as dry as possible and drop 
them into the diaper pail containing plenty of clear cold 
water. Once a day, preferably in the morning, they are 
washed in the laundry. In most cases they are run through 
the washing machine with a neutral soap solution, rinsed 
and hung to dry. In my case they were never boiled. 

186 



LAUNDRY METHODS 



It may be heresy but try it as I did and be convinced. 
It is exceedingly bad practice to drop the diaper unrinsed 
into the diaper pail. Success depends upon making that 
first rinse a thorough one. 

The woolen shirts and bands received their careful rinsing 
but were washed only tw T ice a week. The same caution 
is needed with these. They must never be allowed to dry 
after urine or other discharge has stained them. If they 
should become dry they will require all of the drastic 
washing methods that are commonly used. 

The baby's bedding changed twice a week, is best put into 
the regular wash from the start. If the sheets are wet, 
rinse in cold water and dry before sending to the laundry. 

The rubber sheet is given a daily wash in plenty of cold 
not warm water. In this way the rubber sheet can be kept 
absolutely free of yellow stain if it is of the woven stock- 
inette type. If of rubber the treatment will prolong its 
life of service. The tiny slips and dresses are washed by 
hand in the hand tub. They are ironed with the four- 
pound size of iron because it proves a bit more convenient 
to handle. It is quite possible to plan one of the twice- 
a-week wash days on the regular laundry day, leaving the 
other to fall on a Thursday, when presumably the laundry 
is free from its household burdens. 



187 



BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



HOME-MADE SOAP FLAKES 

If you live where it is impossible to get your favorite laun- 
dry soap in flake form, as I do now, try getting the bars 
of soap and running them through the food-grinder. The 
riper the soap, the easier it is to grind, but in any case 
grinding is easier than shaving with a knife and yields a 
flake that is very quickly dissolved. I grind several bars 
at a time and keep the flakes in a can until I want them, 

thus saving time on wash day. 

— Good Housekeeping Discovery. 

FOR COLORED EMBROIDERY PIECES 

When dampening and rolling up any articles to be pressed 
that have colored embroideries or trimming, lay a piece of 
old white cloth between the colored portion and the sur- 
rounding material. This catches any slight fading or stain 
that might be transferred indelibly to the other part. I 
learned to do this after having an embroidered oyster 
pongee belonging to my little girl ruined by orange and 
blue stains from the hand work on it. 

— Good Housekeeping Discovery. 

WHEN WASHING LACE COLLARS 

I have found that a cloth wrung out of thin starch water 
gives just enough stiffness to a lace collar to make it seem 
like new. Place the lace between two thicknesses of the 
cloth and iron until all are dry. The effect is soft but not 
"washed" looking. — Good Housekeeping Discovery. 

188 



LAUNDRY METHODS 



ON IRONING DAY 

On ironing days remember to slip a clean handkerchief into 
the pocket of each little garment, and the children will 
be ready with this often-forgotten article without having 
to think about it during the busy hour between breakfast 
and the start to school. Grown people also like to have 
things at hand, and if the links are put in the cuffs of soft 
shirts on the ironing table, they are not only ready to 
wear, but more easily folded. 

— Good Housekeeping Discovery. 

HANGING CLOTHES IN COLD WEATHER 

In cold weather I place my clothes-pins in a pan in the 
warming oven. When I am ready to hang out the washing, 
I put the hot clothes-pins in the clothes-pin bag. Each 
time I reach for a pin, my fingers get warm, and the hot 
clothes-pins also help to keep the corners from freezing 
too much in hanging the clothes straight. 

— Good Housekeeping Discovery. 

KEEPING THE IRONING BOARD CLEAN 

It is surprising how much dust can collect on an ironing 
board cover when it is not in use. To avoid just this 
very thing, I have made a cotton bag into which the iron- 
ing board can be slipped after each time of using. This 
bag is long enough to fold over at the top and thus protects 
the board from dirt and dust. 

— Good Housekeeping Discovery. 
189 



BUSINESS OF HOUSEKEEPING 



DOLLS' CLOTHES-PINS SOLVE THE PROBLEM 

Dolls' clothes-pins have proved very useful in hanging the 
baby's clothes on a cord across the upstairs piazza. The 
big pins fall out, and safety-pins are very apt to tear the 
clothes. — Good Housekeeping Discovery. 

REMOVABLE COVERS FOR HOLDERS 

I find ironing holders, and in fact all holders, are bound to 
get soiled when used for any great length of time, and it is 
not an easy task to wash and dry them when they are so 
thick. To ease the washing of the same, I make the founda- 
tion pads of the usual size and shape. Then I make slip- 
covers of the same size as the pads, having short tapes on 
the edges. These covers slip over the pads easily, being 
tied in position. "When soiled, the covers alone are re- 
moved and washed. Gingham, percale, or something firm 
and washable is satisfactory for the covers. 

— Good Housekeeping Discovery. 

DRYING WOOLEN SWEATERS 

Heavy woolen sweaters may be dried most successfully in 
the following way: Lay a clean sheet kept just for the 
purpose over a window screen. On this place the washed 
sweater in exactly its original form, carefully placing the 
fulness in the front, with a flat back. Balance the screen 
on two chairs and dry the sweater over a floor register or 
in a warm room in the winter time, or in a shady place 
out-of-doors if it is summer. 

— Good Housekeeping Discovery. 
190 



Index 



Account-keeping, 17 

Adhesive Tape, new uses for, 68 

Advertisements, newspaper and maga- 
zine, 94 

Alcohol, denatured, uses for, 79 

Ammonia, Household, 117 

Aniline Bluing, for laundry, 153 

Art Gum, uses for, 58 

Attic, care of, 117 

Awnings, care of, 115 

Baby, washing for, 186 

Banks, Home Service Departments of, 
20 

Bathroom, efficient, 50, 59 

Bath Tub, brushes for, 57 

Bed Spreads, 55 

Bed Springs, 63 

Beds, single, 52 

Beds, and Bed Making, 51, 52 

Blankets, 65 ; how to launder, 183 ; 
lengthening of, 55 

Blotters, uses for, 77 

Blues and Tints, for laundry, 152 

Bluing, 179 ; aniline for laundry, 153 ; 
for laundry, 147 ; ultramarine for 
laundry, 152 

Boiler, Copper for laundry, 142 

Boiling, for certain garments, 164 

Boiling Water, not essential for wash- 
ing machines, 161 

Bookcases, care of, 118 

Books, care of, 118 

Borax laundry soaps, 147 

Bowls, mixing and cooking, 63 

Breakfast, keeping coffee hot for, 33 

Breakfast Table, 44 

Brooms, ways to preserve, 33 

Brushes, for bathtub, 57 

Budgeting, 9, 17 ; a call to, 17 ; En- 
velope System, 18 ; helps for, 25 ; 
tables for dividing income, 20 

Burners, types of, 82 ; wick type, 82j 
wickless type, 82 

Carpet renovating, 119 

Carpet Sweepers, 89 

Carpets, 84 

Carpets and Rugs, cleaning, 112, 113 

Cabinet, Kitchen, 142 

Cabinets, Wall, 130 

Cellar, cleanliness of, 106 ; care of, 
106 ; coal and wood bins, 107 

Cement Floor, treatment of, 112 ; paint 
for, 134 

Chambermaid- waitress, duties of, 37 



Cheesecloth, uses for, 125 

Chemicals for laundry, 144, 145 ; rules 
for their use, 171 

Children's Rompers, how to launder, 
164 

China C'jset, care of, 118 

Cleaning, by electrolysis, 75 ; by vac- 
uum, 119 ; metal, 78 ; rooms, 118 

Closet, care of, 100, 102 

Closet, Linen, care of, 101 

Clothes, colored, how to launder, 169 ; 
men's, care of, 103 ; not to be soaped 
for laundry, 163 ; not to be soaked 
for laundry, 163 

Clothes Chute, 131 

Clothes-pins, doll's, uses for, 190 

Clothes Posts, beautifying of, 133 

Coal-bins, 109 

Coal-range, care of, 81 

Coat-hangers, for drying clothes, 146 

Coffee, method for keeping hot, 33 

Coffee Pot, how to clean, 64 

Cold Storage, commercial, 100 

Color, selection of, for floor, 86 

Combs, how to clean, 58 

Containers, metal, 123 

Cook-Laundress, duties of, 37 

Cooking Dishes, how to clean, 60 

Cooking Utensils, care of, 80 

Copper Boiler, for laundry, 142 

Covers, washable, 113 

Credit, buying on, 19, 23 

Curtains, Cheesecloth, uses for, 125 

Curtains and Portieres, cleaning, 118 

Dampness, prevention of, 123 

Denatured Alcohol, uses for, 79 

Dextrine, starch substitute, 158 

Diapers, how to launder, 186 

Dishpan, how to eliminate, 65 

Dish-Towels, 66 

Dishwasher, 12 

Dishwashing, 60 

Disinfectants, 117; Spraying Machines, 
117 

Down Pillows, 54 

Downstairs, care of, 43, 45 

Drainboard sink, 12 

Dresser Mirror, 58 

Dressing-table, 59 

Dryer, electric centrifugal, 136 

Dryer, quick for laundry, 130 

Dryer Racks, 13 

Dryers, 136 ; gas heated for laundry, 
136 ; stove-heated for laundry, 136 



191 



INDEX 



Drying Yard for Laundry, 131 

Dutch Silver, cleaning of, 76 

Dyes and Tints, for laundry work, 154 

Electric Fuses, 124 

Electric Lights, 77 

Electricity, care in using, 77 

Electrolysis Cleaning, 75 

Embroidery Pieces, how to launder, 188 

Envelope System, for accounts, 18 

Equipment, Labor-saving, 9, 11 ; laun- 
dry. 13, 31, 129, 134 ; selection of, 
13, 14 

Expenses, how to itemize, 19, 20 

Exterminator, Commercial, 105 

Fabrics, colored, how to launder. 176 

Fabrics, white, how to launder, 176 

Family Wash, nature of soils of, 162 ; 
routine for, 165 

Fats, animal, in family wash, 162 

Faucet Attachments, 61 

Faucets, 79 ; leaky, 21 ; nickeled, 
how cleaned, 79 

Fire, prevention of, 123 

Fireless Cookers, 12 

Fireplaces, care of, 124 

Firewood, 107 

Flies, prevention of, 110 

Floor, Cement, paint for, 134 

Floors, care and treatment of, 84 ; Ce- 
ment, treatment for, 112 ; colors for, 
86 ; Hardwood, 91 ; how to clean, 
91; Linoleum, 85; painted, 85; 
Porch, 112 ; shellacked, 89 ; soft 
wood, 91 ; tiling, 92 ; treatment and 
care of, 84 ; varnished, 85 ; wash- 
ing of, 91 ; waxed, 87 ; wood, 85 

"Fog,*' how to remove from furniture, 
97 

Food, purchase of, 22 

Foods, perishable, 122 

Formulas, washing, 147 

Furnace, asbestos coverings for, 108 ; 
care of, 108; spring cleaning of, 108 

Furniture, cleaning and polishing, 95 ; 
Lawn, 111 ; Overstuffed, cleaning of, 
118 ; painted, 97 ; polishing of, 95 ; 
Porch, 111 ; renovating scratched, 
49 ; Wicker and Reed, cleaning of, 
97; Willow, 111 

Furniture Polish, 111 

Garments, Winter, storage of, 114 

Gas Stove, 82 

Georgette Crepes, how to launder, 179 

German Silver, cleaning of, 76 

Glassware, for Cooking, 80 ; how to 
clean, 62 ; washing of, 62 

Good Housekeeping Savings Bank, 26 

Good Housekeeping Institute, helps 
from, 14, 141 

Grease Sj>ots, how to remove, 46 ; on 
floor, 47 

192 



Gum Arabic, starch substitute, 158 

Hampers, Laundry, 131 

Hands, care of, 99 

Hangings, Winter, 113 

Hard Water, effects of, on laundry, 151 

Heating, 22 ; how to reduce bills for, 
22 

Heating Leaks, 22 

Heating Systems, water, 12 

Help, schedule for, 29 

Home Accounts, how kept, 20 

House-cleaning, schedule for, 116 ; sea- 
sonal, 116 

House, closing, procedure for, 120 

Household Linen, how to launder, 
164 

Household Tasks, daily routine, 43 ; 
downstairs, 43 ; routine for, 41 ; 
Special, 71 ; upstairs, 50 

Housekeepers and Servants, 27 

Housekeeping, the new, 9 ; outdoor, 
110 ; scientific, 15 

Income, division of, 18, 20 

Infants, washing for, 186 

Ink Spots, how to remove from floor, 
48 

Insecticide, uses for, 115 

Installment Plan, purchases by, 14 

Iron, best weight for, 139 

Iron, electric, cost of power, 140 

Iron Rust, how to remove, 172 

Ironer, open-end, 137 

Ironing, 178 ; by hand, time study, 
138 ; by machine, time study, 138 

Ironing Board, suggestions for, 145 

Ironing Boards, 13, 137 

Ironing Day, 189 

Ironing Machines, 31, 130, 136 

Irons, Hand, 139 

Irons, Electric, 139 

Javelle Water, how to prepare, 171 

Jewelry, care of, 122 

Kitchen Cabinet, 11 

Kitchen, cardboard for use in, 48 

Kitchen Linoleum, 93 

Kitchen Range, care of, 81 

Kitchen Table, height of, 48 

Kitchen and Laundry, combination of, 
132 

Labor-saving Equipment, 11 

Lace Collars, how to launder, 188 

Lamp Shades, 6ilk, care of, 121 

Lanoline, animal fat, 180 

Laundry, plan and location, 129 ; 
aniline bluing for, 153 ; Blankets, 
184 ; Baby's Wash, 186 ; Chemical 
Reagents for, 144 ; Diapers, 186 ; 
Embroidery pieces, 188 ; Equipment, 
13, 134 ; Equipment, cost of. 130 ; 
essentials, 129 ; floor for, 134 ; 
Georgette crepes, 179 ; hampers for, 



INDEX 



131 ; how to sprinkle clothes, 173 
how to wash silks, 176 ; how to 
wash white and colored pieces, 176 
Javelle Water, 171 ; Lace Collars 
188 ; lighting of, 136 ; list of equip 
raent for, 144, 145 ; Methods, 160 
Oxalic Acid for, 171 ; Plain Soaps 
147 ; Potassium Permanganate for 
171 ; Routine for, 166 ; six essential 
facts concerning, 163 ; Stockings to 
be washed separately, 169 ; Tools, 
132 ; Ultramarine Bluing for, 152 ; 
washing of underwear, 10 i ; water 
hardness affecting, 151 ; water soften- 
ing for, 151 ; Woolens, 180 ; walls 
for, 134 ; wiring of, 135 

Laundry Soaps, 147 ; borax, 147 ; 
naphtha, 147 ; plain, 147 

Laundry Spoons, 132 

Laundry Starch, 156 

Laundry Trays, 140 

Laundry and Kitchen, combination of, 132 

Lemon Juice, for hands, 99 

Lemon Rinds, uses for, 83 

Lighting, 21 ; how to reduce bills 
for, 21 

Lighting Fixtures, care of, 122 

Linen, 51 

Linen Closet, care of, 101 

Lingerie Tints and Dyes, 154 

Lining-paper, 117 

Linoleum, 13 ; for flooring, 112 ; 
kitchen, 93 ; laying of, 93 

Liquid Wax, 89 

Living-Room, 45 

Locks, care of, 124 

Machine, Ironing, 136 

Machine, W T ashing, 140 

Magazine Advertisements, 94 

Maid, single, regime for, 29 ; duties 
of, 29, 30 

Maids, schedule for two, 37, 38 

Matches, danger of, from mice, 123 ; 
safeguarding, 123 

Mattress, selection of, 54 

Mattress Pad, 56 

Men's Clothes, care of, 103 

Metal, cleaning of, 78 

Metal Containers, 123 

Mildew, how to remove, 173, 175 

Mirrors, 58 

Monthly Payment System, 19 

Mop, Dish, how to dry, 66 

Mops, Floor, 52 ; oil polish, 88 ; 
Chemical Dust, 89 

Moth Prevention, 120 

Moth Preventives, 117 

Moth-proof Bags, 103 

Moth-proof Chests, 117 

Moths, fumigation for, 105 ; protec- 
tion against, 114 



193 



Naphtha Soaps, 147 ; for use with hard 

water, 151 
Neckbands, how to launder, 31 
Newspaper Advertisements, 94 
Oil-polish Mop, 88 
Oil Stove, 82 
Open-end Ironer, 137 
Overcoats and Suits, care of, 104 
Oxalic Acid, how to prepare, 171 
Padded Polisher, use of, 88 
Pans, roasting, cleaning, 63 
Papered Walls, how cleaned, 97 
"Piece bags," 103 
Pillows, 54 
Polish, Furniture, 111 
Polish Mop, use of, 89 
Polishing Cloths, for silver, 74 
Portieres, cleaning of, 118 
Potassium Permanganate, how to pre- 
pare, 171 
Prussian Blue, 152 
Quilts, Down, 185 
Radiators, how to clean. 119 
Rain water, for laundry, 149 
Range, Kitchen, care of, 81 
Refrigeration, Electric, 12 
Refrigerator, care of, 67 ; cleaning of, 

67 ; how to clean, 68 
Renovating, Spring, 110 
Room Cleaning, 118 
Rugs, cleaning of, 118 
Rugs and Carpets, cleaning, 112, 

113 
Sales, advantages of, 24 ; department 

store, 24 
Sandpaper, uses for, 94 
Saucepans, how to clean, 63 
Savings Bank, 26 
Savings, how to accumulate, 20, 21 
Screens, care of, 110 
Screens, Window, care of, 98 
Scrap-Book, for household furnishings, 

94 
Sewing-machine, Electric, 13 
Sewing- table, 142 
Servant, single, 29 ; weekly schedule 

for, 27 
Servants and Housekeepers, 27 
Servants, care of, 34 ; engagement of, 

36; Regime for two, 34; Routine 

for two, 34, 35 ; working schedules 

for, 38 
Sheets, size of, 83 
Sheets and Blankets, 55 
Shellac, uses of, 112 ; for cement floors, 

112 
Shoe Carrier, 102 
Shoes, care of, 102 
Shopping, 23, 24 
Silk, rules for laundering, 176 
Silks, how to launder, 169, 176 



INDEX 



Silver, care of, 122 ; cleaning of, 73 ; 

how to clean, 73, 74 ; polishing 

cloth for, 74 
Silver and China, how to wash, 60 
Sink Drainer, 60 
Soap, castile, 95 
Soap Chips, 147 

Soap Flakes for Laundry work, 155 
Soap Flakes, home-made, 188 
Soap, how to utilize scraps, 39 
Soap, in solution, 148 
Soap Jelly, uses of, 155 
Soap-shaker, new use for, 146 
Soap-tints, 154 
Soaps and Soap Compounds, 147 ; 

borax, 147 ; dye for laundry work, 

155 ; for laundry purposes, 181 ; 

flake and powdered, 148 ; naphtha.. 

148 ; to be used in solutions, 163 
Soft Water, effects of, on laundry, 149 
Solutions, washing, 166, 167 
Sponges, Rubber, 59 
Spoons, Laundry, 132 
Spraying Machines, for disinfectants, 

117 
Spring Renovating, 110 
Stains, their reagents, 172 ; Chocolate, 

172 ; Coffee and Tea, 172 ; Fruit, 

172 ; Grass, 172 ; how to remove, 

170 ; Ink, 172 ; Iron Rust, 172 ; 

Mildew, 172 ; Tea and Coffee, 172 ; 

Vaseline, 173 ; Wagon Grease, 173 
Starch, formulas, 156; substitutes, 158; 

and Starching, 156 ; varieties of, 159 
Starching clothes, 159 
Stockings, to be washed separately, 

169 
Storage Problems, 103 
Storeroom, care of, 100 
Storeroom, protection of against mice 

and rats, 107 
Storm Windows and Doors, 110 
Sotve, Gas, 82 
Stove, Kitchen, care of, 81 
Stove, Oil, 82 

Strength, conservation of, 15 
"Suds" for laundry, 150 
Suits and Overcoats, care of, 104 
Supplies, Food, 24 ; staple, 24 
Surfaces, woodwork, cleaning of, 98 
Sweaters, woolen, how to dry, 190 
Table, Kitchen, height of, 48 
Table Pad, 32 
Tape, adhesive, 68 
Tea Pot, how to clean, 64 
Telephone, long distance calls, timing 

of, 33 ; ordering by, 23 
Thermos Bottle, uses for, 33 
Tints and Blues for laundry, 152 



Tints and Dyes for laundry work, 154 

Toilet seats, cleaning of, 92 

Tool Room, 107 

Transoms, for Ventilation, 135 

Traps, care of, 124 

Turpentine, uses for 88, 112 

Ultramarine Bluing, for laundry, 152 

Underwear, how to launder, 164 

Upstairs, care of, 50 

Vacuum Cleaner, 13, 88, 104 

Vacuum Cleaning, 119 

Varnish, hard waterproof, 135 

Varnish stains, how to mix, 86 

Vaseline, how to remove stain, 173 

Vases, flower, 45 ; silver, 45 

Ventilation, 135 

Wagon Grease, how to remove stain, 

173 
Waitress-chambermaid, duties of, 37 
Wall Cabinets, 130 
Wall, surfaces, cleaning of, 98 
Walls, papered, care of, 97 
Wash, Family, routine for, 165 
Wash, sanitary, without boiling, 165 
Washing, chemistry of, 160 
Washing Formulas, 147, 151 
Washing Machine, 31, 129, 166, 179 
Washing Machines, how to use, 166, 

167 ; piping of, 141 
Washing Soda, 149 
Washing Solutions, 166, 167 
Water, rain, for laundry, 149 
Water Hardness, affecting laundry 

work, 151 
Water Softeners, for laundry, 149 
Water Softening Plants for laundry, 

151 
Wax, for floors, 87 
Wax, liquid, 89 ; how to apply, 90 
Wax, paste, uses for, 112 
Wax Polish, liquid, 111 
Weekly Schedule, for servant, 31 
White Clothes, washing of, 168 
Whitewashing, uses for, 109 
Window Screens, care of, 98 
Women's Clothes, care of, 102, 103 
Woodwork surfaces, cleaning of, 98 
Wool Blankets, care of, 103 
Woolen Sweaters, how to launder, 190 
Woolens, bow to launder, 180 
Wools, how to launder, 169 ; how to 

dry after washing, 182 
Work Bench, for laundry, 143 
Window Shades, how to attach, 32 ; 

renewing of, 99 
Winter Garments, care of, 114 
Wiring, for lighting, 135 
Wristbands and Neckbands, how to 

launder, 162 



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